erinwelsh.edps325.finalproject.docx - LIFESPAN HUMAN GROWTH...

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Unformatted text preview: LIFESPAN HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 Final Project 2 SECTION ONE Historical Background My mother, Rita Sarnowski is Scottish, Irish, Polish, and German. She comes from two parents Ethel and Francis. My grandmother, Ethel is 25% Scottish, 37.5% Irish, and 37.5% German. My grandmother lived her entire life in the United States. My grandfather, Francis, was brought over from Poland when he was 3 years old and is 100% Polish. My grandparents raised their family in Columbus, OH and later moved to Wyandotte, MI. My father, Dennis Welsh, is Irish and Polish. His mother, Helen, was 50% Irish and 50% Polish. His father, Richard, was also 50% Irish and 50% Polish. Both of my grandparents on my father’s side lived in the United States for the entirety of their lives and raised their children in Southgate, MI. Currently, I live at home with both of my parents in Taylor, MI. I moved back home earlier this year to save up money for when I go to grad school. My mother is 53 years old and works as a nurse at an assisted living facility. My father is 61 years old and is a retired steel worker. I moved out of my parent’s house into my own apartment at the age of 18 and moved back home right before I turned 21. My lifestyle has definitely changed since I’ve moved back home. My parents, while they have never been strict, I do feel as if I’ve lost a lot of freedom since being home. I am also the type of person whom enjoys being on their own, and I’ve lost a lot of my alone time as well. However, being at home I do think of relationships with my parents have strengthened. I’ve grown up close to both of them and now being around them more as an adult, I feel as if I can connect to 3 them on more an intellectual level. My extended family has gradually grown father apart throughout the years. As my grandparents passed away when I was younger, my extended family has gotten together at less frequency, and nowadays we typically see each other once every one or two years. I decided to attend Eastern Michigan University because of scholarships offered and its convenient location to home. When I first began college, I was not completely sure what I wanted to attend school for. I started my path with a major in interior design, then switched over to healthcare administration, and eventually found exercise science. While in the exercise science program I was able to learn about the Physician Assistant profession and fell in love with the career. Since my time at Eastern Michigan University I have had numerous experiences to development socially, intellectually, and towards my future career path. Values and Beliefs My family is composed of my mother, my father, and myself. I am the only child in mu family and we are not very close with our extended family. I only had one grandparent growing up, my grandmother on my father’s side. Grandmother Helen passed away when I was 12 years old and my other grandparents passed away before my birth. All duties have been traditionally shared among my family. Both of my parents worked a lot growing up, my father was a steel worker and my mother a nurse. Everyone participated in cooking, cleaning, and upkeep with the house. Nowadays, my father does more of the housework and cleaning, as he is home more since retirement. My parents did very well at disciplining me in my 4 younger age. They incorporated time-outs, stern words and reinforcements, and occasionally smacking. While I don’t plan on having children, if I were to, I would discipline them in the same manner. I believe the methods my parents used worked well for me, and I would implement on my children as well. My parents raised me to be very goal orientated and to strive towards whatever I want in life. I was taught that I can achieve anything I set my mind to as long as I work hard and put forth the efforts needed to reach my dreams. Being an old child I brought up in an individualist aspect. I tend to work on my own and enjoy the feeling of accomplishing tasks without the aid of others. Since I enjoy doing the work myself, when I work with others I have a tendency to overtake and do majority of the work myself. Going along with being very goal orientated, I also strived towards achievements, and this is something I still do, today. My parents never went over the top to celebrate my achievements and rewards, I was given praise and that was about it. This approach made me more humble about my achievements. It was also instilled in me to aim towards high achievements, so I’ve always had a difficult time aiming for less than I know I’m capable of. Currently, I’m training for my first powerlifting competition in September, and I know I have the ability to achieve a high score at my competition so I’ve engrained myself to put in the greatest amount of work into my training possible to get to the high score. My family has also instilled the important of working and having a career to me. I started working when I was 16 years old and have held a full-time position since then. I have always enjoyed working and believe it gives me a sense of 5 purpose. While my parents are putting me through my undergrad, I am responsible for paying my way through PA school and am currently working to save up for grad school. School has always been very important in my family. Both of my parents went to college, my father for engineering and my mother for nursing. Growing up I went to a charter school in Romulus, MI, and attended there from kindergarten to my high school graduation. There was a large amount of diversity and we were exposed to many difficulty cultural learning experiences. This allowed me to grow up with a more open perspective of others and a passion towards helping and interacting with other cultures and races. My family was always well off and I was given many opportunities and things throughout life but I was raised to be humble about all of this. I was also raised to help others and give to the less fortunate. When I was younger I would volunteer at my mother’s assisted living facility and spend time with the elderly. As I got older I began to go on mission trips and I was able to help underdeveloped countries and communities. Overall, I was raised by two loving parents to strive to be the absolute best I can be in life and in return give back to those less fortunate than me. SECTION TWO Analysis of Your Development Freud Sigmund Freud developed the Psychosexual Developmental Theory that the development that occurs in children takes place in a series of fixed stages and molds. He especially stressed that the first five years of a child’s life are crucial to 6 their adult personality formation (McLeod, 2008). The most important of the five stages is the Phallic Stage, occurring from the ages of 3-6 years old. During this time the child identifies his or her own sexual identification and begins to grow closer to the parent of that same sex. This was true for my development; my mother and I were very close as I was growing up and even to this day she is one of my best friends. Before I went through the phallic stage, I was a lot closer to my father, but once I began to recognize my own sexuality my mother and I grew a lot closer. I have always looked up to my mother and still continue to look up to her today. Erikson Erik Erikson developed the Psychosocial Theory of Development that the impact of external factors and society effect a child’s development to adulthood. Erikson’s stages are different than Freud’s in that they span from birth to death. Currently, I am 21 years old and I’m in the Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation stage. It is stated that during this time people seek intimacy and companionship (JL, 2014). I find this to be true in not only myself but in those around me within the same age range. While I am not currently in a relationship, I am in a point in my life where I am open to being in one and am interested in dating for potential marriage. Watson John Watson played an important role in the development of the behaviorism theory. He believed that the environment of the child is which shapes their behaviors and temperament. If you expose a child to a preconceived environment then over time the child will develop into a specific type of person (Cherry, 2017). In 7 my life I can see this to be true, especially in my love for volunteering and helping others. I was always exposed to volunteerism and giving to others. My mom always had me visit the elderly at her work spend time doing things for them and I was constantly involved in volunteer work when in girl scouts. To this day I love volunteering. I spend weekends at the hospital volunteering with the patients there and have been on numerous mission trips to help underprivileged communities. Skinner B.F. Skinner developed another theory of behaviorism. He believed that through the use of positive and negative reinforcement a specific behavior can be discouraged or encouraged (Cherry, 2016). When I was younger I had a lot of issues disobeying what my parents would instruct me to do. They used negative reinforcement to discourage this behavior. My parents would take away TV time, video games, computer time, etc. and force me to stay in my room alone. Eventually I learned to obey my parents and follow what they told me to do. Piaget John Piaget developed the theory of Cognitive Development. His theory described that development occurred through thought processes and mental states which influences how the world around us is understood (Cherry, 2017). His theory consists of four different stages that a child goes through. Currently, I am in the Formal Operational Stage where logical thought and abstract concepts are developed. I can see this to be true of my own life, I am constantly learning every day and have a joy to learn. I tend to use problem solving a lot in my decisions. 8 Children use trial-and-error to solve their problems, but as I’ve grown I’ve learned to think systematically to solve my problems. Bowlby John Bowbly propped the Attachment Theory that early relationships with caregivers influence social relationships throughout life (Cherry, 2017). Children are born with a need to form secure attachments in order to receive care and protection. When I was a child I had a very strong attachment to my mother, strong to her than any other person in my life. I experienced distress and discomfort when I was not around her; this made it difficult when she began nursing school. There were many times as a young child that it would be difficult for me to go over relative’s houses without my mother or even be with just my father if my mother was not around. Bandura Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory that behaviors are not just learned through conditioning but also through observation and modeling (Cherry, 2017). My mother and father did good job of this when I was growing up. They demonstrated that everyone in the household is to help with tasks such as cooking and cleaning. By watching my parents do this I eventually learned that it was a duty of mine as well. I remember even when I was young helping to cook dinner for my family and clean up the house on a regular basis. Vygotsky 9 Lev Vygotsky developed the Sociocultural Theory. His theory stated that learning is a social process (Cherry, 2017). Children learn by interaction and these learned experiences develop their understanding of the world. I grew up being an only child, so because of that a large majority of my interactions were with adults. Because of the constant adult interaction I believe I matured at a much faster pace than my peers. I have always been told that I come off much older than my age. I was constantly exposed to the world views of established adults between 30-60 years old which is why I have always seen things from a more developed and mature perspective. Chomsky Noam Chomsky proposed that all humans are born with basic language instincts (Dovey, 2015). He taught that langue is like walking and while we learn by example, we are in fact born with underlying understanding of language. When I was 18 I took a solo trip to Japan for two weeks. The area I visited and little to no English speakers. This caused me to rely on my internal instinct of language to communicate with the people around me. I was able to go exploring and to local bars and restaurants in the area and have conversations with Japanese speakers through nonverbal language. While no actual words were spoken, everyone was able to communicate through nonverbal communication through underlying knowledge of language. Bruner 10 Bruner proposed a theory that cognitive growth comes from an interaction between basic human capabilities and education (McLeod, 2008). There are three stages to his theory. I am currently in the symbolic stage, occurring from the age of 7 onward, in that information is stored as a symbol. A common, universally understood symbol is the cross. You can travel anywhere and it is known that the cross is a representation of God. SECTION THREE Reflection and Future Implication Throughout this course I have gained insight on numerous aspects in my own life and the lives of those around me. I have learned how to assess people based on their stages in life and how experiences and upbringings cause influence for the rest of one’s life. As a Physician Assistant it will be very important for me to have a strong understanding of development and how it affects my children patients as well as my adult patients. Having this understanding will also help me aid in the development of my god-daughter who is due to be born in July. While I don’t plan on having children of my own, I plan on being very involved in my god-daughter’s life. I have learned tools and techniques to ensure she is developing successfully. This course has also opened my eyes to my own development. I am currently 21 years old, and in the later stages of development, however I still have a long way to go. There are still plenty of opportunities for me in life to continue to grow and develop. The following tips will allow me to relate to my patient’s needs as a PA: 11 Vary the approach to treatment based on the patient’s age and development level. Do not approach the patient with a preconceived notion on them based on race, appearance, or reason for needing treatment. View the background of the patient to understand how to treat them before beginning treatment. Pay attention to how the patient is responding to treatment and alter approach based on that. Watch for national behaviors of ailments of the patient that they may not directly express to you. Put the needs of the patient first and foremost and make them your top priority. Resources Boyd, D. R., & Bee, H. L. (2015). Lifespan Development (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Cherry, K. (n.d.). B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning | About Psychology. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from Cherry, K. (n.d.). John Watson Biography. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from Cherry, K. (2017, June 12). John B. Watson - Pioneering Psychologist Biography. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from Cherry, K. (2017, May 05). What Are Some Theories of Child Development? Retrieved June 10, 2017, from Dovey, D. (2015, December 16). Our Brains Are Hardwired To Learn Grammar. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from J L, "Erikson’s Stages of Development," in Learning Theories, July 23, 2014, McLeod, S. (2008). Bruner. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from McLeod, S. (2008). Psychosexual Stages. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from ...
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