Unformatted text preview: LIFESPAN HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 Final Project 2
SECTION ONE Historical Background
My mother, Rita Sarnowski is Scottish, Irish, Polish, and German. She comes
from two parents Ethel and Francis. My grandmother, Ethel is 25% Scottish, 37.5% Irish,
and 37.5% German. My grandmother lived her entire life in the United States. My
grandfather, Francis, was brought over from Poland when he was 3 years old and is 100%
Polish. My grandparents raised their family in Columbus, OH and later moved to
My father, Dennis Welsh, is Irish and Polish. His mother, Helen, was 50% Irish
and 50% Polish. His father, Richard, was also 50% Irish and 50% Polish. Both of my
grandparents on my father’s side lived in the United States for the entirety of their lives
and raised their children in Southgate, MI.
Currently, I live at home with both of my parents in Taylor, MI. I moved back
home earlier this year to save up money for when I go to grad school. My mother is 53
years old and works as a nurse at an assisted living facility. My father is 61 years old and
is a retired steel worker. I moved out of my parent’s house into my own apartment at the
age of 18 and moved back home right before I turned 21. My lifestyle has definitely
changed since I’ve moved back home. My parents, while they have never been strict, I do
feel as if I’ve lost a lot of freedom since being home. I am also the type of person whom
enjoys being on their own, and I’ve lost a lot of my alone time as well. However, being at
home I do think of relationships with my parents have strengthened. I’ve grown up close
to both of them and now being around them more as an adult, I feel as if I can connect to
3 them on more an intellectual level. My extended family has gradually grown father apart
throughout the years. As my grandparents passed away when I was younger, my extended
family has gotten together at less frequency, and nowadays we typically see each other
once every one or two years.
I decided to attend Eastern Michigan University because of scholarships offered
and its convenient location to home. When I first began college, I was not completely
sure what I wanted to attend school for. I started my path with a major in interior design,
then switched over to healthcare administration, and eventually found exercise science.
While in the exercise science program I was able to learn about the Physician Assistant
profession and fell in love with the career. Since my time at Eastern Michigan University
I have had numerous experiences to development socially, intellectually, and towards my
future career path.
Values and Beliefs
My family is composed of my mother, my father, and myself. I am the only
child in mu family and we are not very close with our extended family. I only had one
grandparent growing up, my grandmother on my father’s side. Grandmother Helen
passed away when I was 12 years old and my other grandparents passed away
before my birth. All duties have been traditionally shared among my family. Both of
my parents worked a lot growing up, my father was a steel worker and my mother a
nurse. Everyone participated in cooking, cleaning, and upkeep with the house.
Nowadays, my father does more of the housework and cleaning, as he is home more
since retirement. My parents did very well at disciplining me in my
4 younger age. They incorporated time-outs, stern words and reinforcements, and
occasionally smacking. While I don’t plan on having children, if I were to, I would
discipline them in the same manner. I believe the methods my parents used worked
well for me, and I would implement on my children as well.
My parents raised me to be very goal orientated and to strive towards
whatever I want in life. I was taught that I can achieve anything I set my mind to as
long as I work hard and put forth the efforts needed to reach my dreams. Being an
old child I brought up in an individualist aspect. I tend to work on my own and enjoy
the feeling of accomplishing tasks without the aid of others. Since I enjoy doing the
work myself, when I work with others I have a tendency to overtake and do majority
of the work myself. Going along with being very goal orientated, I also strived
towards achievements, and this is something I still do, today. My parents never went
over the top to celebrate my achievements and rewards, I was given praise and that
was about it. This approach made me more humble about my achievements. It was
also instilled in me to aim towards high achievements, so I’ve always had a difficult
time aiming for less than I know I’m capable of. Currently, I’m training for my first
powerlifting competition in September, and I know I have the ability to achieve a
high score at my competition so I’ve engrained myself to put in the greatest amount
of work into my training possible to get to the high score.
My family has also instilled the important of working and having a career to
me. I started working when I was 16 years old and have held a full-time position
since then. I have always enjoyed working and believe it gives me a sense of
5 purpose. While my parents are putting me through my undergrad, I am responsible
for paying my way through PA school and am currently working to save up for grad
school. School has always been very important in my family. Both of my parents
went to college, my father for engineering and my mother for nursing. Growing up I
went to a charter school in Romulus, MI, and attended there from kindergarten to
my high school graduation. There was a large amount of diversity and we were
exposed to many difficulty cultural learning experiences. This allowed me to grow
up with a more open perspective of others and a passion towards helping and
interacting with other cultures and races. My family was always well off and I was
given many opportunities and things throughout life but I was raised to be humble
about all of this. I was also raised to help others and give to the less fortunate. When
I was younger I would volunteer at my mother’s assisted living facility and spend
time with the elderly. As I got older I began to go on mission trips and I was able to
help underdeveloped countries and communities. Overall, I was raised by two loving
parents to strive to be the absolute best I can be in life and in return give back to
those less fortunate than me.
Analysis of Your Development
Sigmund Freud developed the Psychosexual Developmental Theory that the
development that occurs in children takes place in a series of fixed stages and molds.
He especially stressed that the first five years of a child’s life are crucial to
6 their adult personality formation (McLeod, 2008). The most important of the five
stages is the Phallic Stage, occurring from the ages of 3-6 years old. During this time
the child identifies his or her own sexual identification and begins to grow closer to
the parent of that same sex. This was true for my development; my mother and I
were very close as I was growing up and even to this day she is one of my best
friends. Before I went through the phallic stage, I was a lot closer to my father, but
once I began to recognize my own sexuality my mother and I grew a lot closer. I have
always looked up to my mother and still continue to look up to her today.
Erik Erikson developed the Psychosocial Theory of Development that the
impact of external factors and society effect a child’s development to adulthood.
Erikson’s stages are different than Freud’s in that they span from birth to death.
Currently, I am 21 years old and I’m in the Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation stage.
It is stated that during this time people seek intimacy and companionship (JL, 2014).
I find this to be true in not only myself but in those around me within the same age
range. While I am not currently in a relationship, I am in a point in my life where I
am open to being in one and am interested in dating for potential marriage.
John Watson played an important role in the development of the behaviorism
theory. He believed that the environment of the child is which shapes their behaviors
and temperament. If you expose a child to a preconceived environment then over
time the child will develop into a specific type of person (Cherry, 2017). In
7 my life I can see this to be true, especially in my love for volunteering and helping
others. I was always exposed to volunteerism and giving to others. My mom always
had me visit the elderly at her work spend time doing things for them and I was
constantly involved in volunteer work when in girl scouts. To this day I love
volunteering. I spend weekends at the hospital volunteering with the patients there
and have been on numerous mission trips to help underprivileged communities.
B.F. Skinner developed another theory of behaviorism. He believed that through the
use of positive and negative reinforcement a specific behavior can be discouraged or
encouraged (Cherry, 2016). When I was younger I had a lot of issues disobeying
what my parents would instruct me to do. They used negative reinforcement to
discourage this behavior. My parents would take away TV time, video games,
computer time, etc. and force me to stay in my room alone. Eventually I learned to
obey my parents and follow what they told me to do.
John Piaget developed the theory of Cognitive Development. His theory described
that development occurred through thought processes and mental states which
influences how the world around us is understood (Cherry, 2017). His theory
consists of four different stages that a child goes through. Currently, I am in the
Formal Operational Stage where logical thought and abstract concepts are
developed. I can see this to be true of my own life, I am constantly learning every day
and have a joy to learn. I tend to use problem solving a lot in my decisions.
8 Children use trial-and-error to solve their problems, but as I’ve grown I’ve learned to
think systematically to solve my problems.
John Bowbly propped the Attachment Theory that early relationships with caregivers
influence social relationships throughout life (Cherry, 2017). Children are born with
a need to form secure attachments in order to receive care and protection. When I
was a child I had a very strong attachment to my mother, strong to her than any
other person in my life. I experienced distress and discomfort when I was not
around her; this made it difficult when she began nursing school. There were many
times as a young child that it would be difficult for me to go over relative’s houses
without my mother or even be with just my father if my mother was not around.
Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory that behaviors are not just
learned through conditioning but also through observation and modeling (Cherry,
2017). My mother and father did good job of this when I was growing up. They
demonstrated that everyone in the household is to help with tasks such as cooking
and cleaning. By watching my parents do this I eventually learned that it was a duty
of mine as well. I remember even when I was young helping to cook dinner for my
family and clean up the house on a regular basis.
Vygotsky 9 Lev Vygotsky developed the Sociocultural Theory. His theory stated that learning is a
social process (Cherry, 2017). Children learn by interaction and these learned
experiences develop their understanding of the world. I grew up being an only child,
so because of that a large majority of my interactions were with adults. Because of
the constant adult interaction I believe I matured at a much faster pace than my
peers. I have always been told that I come off much older than my age. I was
constantly exposed to the world views of established adults between 30-60 years
old which is why I have always seen things from a more developed and mature
Noam Chomsky proposed that all humans are born with basic language
instincts (Dovey, 2015). He taught that langue is like walking and while we learn by
example, we are in fact born with underlying understanding of language. When I was
18 I took a solo trip to Japan for two weeks. The area I visited and little to no English
speakers. This caused me to rely on my internal instinct of language to communicate
with the people around me. I was able to go exploring and to local bars and
restaurants in the area and have conversations with Japanese speakers through
nonverbal language. While no actual words were spoken, everyone was able to
communicate through nonverbal communication through underlying knowledge of
Bruner 10 Bruner proposed a theory that cognitive growth comes from an interaction
between basic human capabilities and education (McLeod, 2008). There are three
stages to his theory. I am currently in the symbolic stage, occurring from the age of 7
onward, in that information is stored as a symbol. A common, universally
understood symbol is the cross. You can travel anywhere and it is known that the
cross is a representation of God.
Reflection and Future Implication
Throughout this course I have gained insight on numerous aspects in my own
life and the lives of those around me. I have learned how to assess people based on
their stages in life and how experiences and upbringings cause influence for the rest
of one’s life. As a Physician Assistant it will be very important for me to have a strong
understanding of development and how it affects my children patients as well as my
adult patients. Having this understanding will also help me aid in the development
of my god-daughter who is due to be born in July. While I don’t plan on having
children of my own, I plan on being very involved in my god-daughter’s life. I have
learned tools and techniques to ensure she is developing successfully. This course
has also opened my eyes to my own development. I am currently 21 years old, and in
the later stages of development, however I still have a long way to go. There are still
plenty of opportunities for me in life to continue to grow and develop.
The following tips will allow me to relate to my patient’s needs as a PA: 11 Vary the approach to treatment based on the patient’s age and development level.
Do not approach the patient with a preconceived notion on them based on race, appearance, or reason for needing treatment.
View the background of the patient to understand how to treat them before beginning treatment.
Pay attention to how the patient is responding to treatment and alter approach based on that.
Watch for national behaviors of ailments of the patient that they may not directly express to you.
Put the needs of the patient first and foremost and make them your top
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