TOPIC 8: CHOCOLATE AND WEIGHT CONTROL Lesson 1: Chocolate Has been known as the food of the Gods. There are more than 500 chemicals in chocolate. - Phenylacetic Acid - Dimethylsulfide - 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol - etc. What we like is more the texture than the taste. Melting point is 36 degrees Celsius (1 degree below human body temperature). As soon as you put a piece in your mouth, it starts melting. Theobroma Cacao: name given to cacao tree (means food of the Gods). The Aztec used Cocoa drinks to satisfy the Gods. Cocoa is very bitter on its own. Xocoatl is the Aztec term and means “bitter”. The Natives used it as a currency; it had great value. The Spaniards believed it had aphrodisiac properties. For most of its history, it wasn’t actually eaten, people would drink it. In Canada (2004), ~4kg per person per year. Cocoa flower belongs to the same family as the orchid. Flower gets converted into cocoa pods. There is no season per se for the pods to grow. Famous types of cocoa: - Forastero - Criollo: supposedly the best of all. - Trinitero The seeds start fermenting. The sugar is converted to alcohol, which is then converted to acetic acid and finally gives rise to esters. This process is very important because it adds flavour to the cocoa. Top Cocoa Producers (2011): - Ivory Coast - Ghana - Indonesia
Process: 1. Cocoa pods are picked and split open 2. Seeds begin to ferment (adding flavour) 3. Seeds are left to dry in the sun and then roasted (enhancing flavour) 4. Seeds are shelled and then crushed into ground nibs Cocoa pods are picked and when mature, split open. They are left open until the seeds ferment which adds flavour to the chocolate. After fermentation, the seeds are left to dry in the sun, then roasted to further enhance the flavour. Chemically, the reaction between amino acids and various sugars in the roasting process is called the Maillard reaction. After they are roasted, the seeds are shelled, then crushed and ground into nibs. Maillard Reaction: browning reaction involves reaction between amino acids and sugars. After it takes place, the seeds become much darker. Then it has to be shelled. Nibs: what you get when crushing seeds. Chocolate liquor: liquid chocolate (non alcoholic). Closest in taste is baking chocolate. Chocolate alone is very bitter and contains lots of fat. Van Houten Family: - Found a way to separate cocoa powder from the cocoa butter (fat). - Cocoa butter has a melting point close to body temperature, which is why it is often used in cosmetic products or also medicinal uses. - Cocoa cakes: compressed cocoa powder. Very bitter. Conrad Van Houten: - Introduced the Dutch process: treat natural cocoa with an alkali and convert it into powder from which the acid has been neutralized. - Natural cocoa is much lighter in color than Dutch processed cocoa.
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