Primates%20Chapter%207%20%26%208

Primates%20Chapter%207%20%26%208 - PRIMATES: Chapter 7 & 8...

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1 >250 species Order Primates Suite of traits Ancestral traits: Generalized limbs Clavicle Pentadactyl Tail Generalized teeth (heterodont) Derived traits: Opposable thumb, big toe Nails Emphasis on vision, decreased olfaction • Forward facing orbits • Stereoscopic vision Teeth = generalized (but heterodont) Old world monkeys, apes and humans have 2:1:2:3 Many prosimians and New world monkeys 2:1:3:3 Emphasis on vision • Derived – Color vision – Stereoscopic vision • Depth perception •3D Evolution theories of Primate traits • Arboreal Hypothesis – Terminal branch feeding • Stereoscopic vision and 3D space • Color vision • Opposability and nails – Flaw = squirrels • Visual Predation Hypothesis (Cartmill, 1974) – Catching small prey in arboreal environment (insects and small vertebrates) • Stereoscopic vision and depth perception • Grasping hands – Eagles, owls, and cats • Angiosperm evolution theory (Sussman) – Adaptive radiation of flowering plants (and associated insects) • Color vision (fruits) All theories are not mutually exclusive Erect posture • derived
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2 Decreased olfaction Expansion & increased complexity of brain Fewer offspring (single) Learned behavior Long maturation (ontogeny) & gestation period Social Life History Traits Behavioral Traits • Activity Patterns – Diurnal vs. nocturnal – Social Groups • Solitary – single • Monogamy – one male, one female • Polyandry – few females, many males • One male Polygyny – 1 male, many females • Polygyny – multi male, multi female • Fission-Fusion Polygyny – group sizes – Male and female philopatry/dispersal • Philopatry = stay in birth group and reproduce – Dominance Hierarchies • Ranking of individuals in a group Owl Monkey Gibbons Golden Lion Tamarin Primate Ecology •D i e t – Folivore – leaf-eating – Frugivore – fruit-eating – Insectivore – insect-eating – Carnivore and herbivore – non-primate – Omnivore – variety of any of the above • Home range – Spatial area of a group – Core area – part of home range most used – Territory – area defended against other groups – Daily Path Length – distance a group with travel in a given day • Predation Strepsirhini/Haplorhini Prosimian/Anthropoid And Galagoes Prosimians Lemurs, Lorises, galagoes, and TARSIERS Anthropoids Monkeys and all apes (including humans) Primate Taxonomy
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3 DO NOT FORGET! • Genus and species always
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course ANTHRO 307 taught by Professor Guestlecturer during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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Primates%20Chapter%207%20%26%208 - PRIMATES: Chapter 7 & 8...

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