Chapter 9 Geology

Chapter 9 Geology - Chapter 9: Geology Geology = study of...

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1 Chapter 9: Geology Geology = study of earth systems Key terms: fossils, paleontology, taphonomy How to become a fossil… Difficult – few become fossils and only a small proportion of those are discovered Biologic and geologic processes Death – injury, disease, predation, etc. Decomposition – insects, microbes, etc Scavengers, trampling, erosion Partial or full burial – sediment helps to protect skeleton from further damage • Interrupts biological phase • Petrification – mineral absorption of soil or water • Tissue is rare in preservation • Frozen organisms Trace fossils – footprints Coprolites – fossilized feces
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2 Stratigraphy Strata – layers of rock Stratigraphy = study of the order of strata Back to the uniformitarians… Hutton and Lyell 4 Principles… Four principles 1. Original horizontality Layers of rock laid down parallel to earths gravitational pull 2. Superposition Oldest layers laid down first and are on the bottom 3. Cross-cutting relationships Layers are older than the feature that cuts through it 4. Faunal succession Older animals are represented deeper in the layers Once extinct, does not reappear Geological Time Scale (GTS) Eons, eras, periods, and epochs Earth = 4.5 billion years old Primates only in the last 65 my in the Cenozoic era KT Boundary
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3 Dating Techniques Geochronology Provenience Estimation of fossil age Techniques fall under 3 main categories: Relative dating – use stratigraphy Calibrated relative dating – compares relative date to absolute time scale Chronometric (Absolute) dating – absolute clock giving age in an estimate of years before present Relative Dating Techniques Lithostratigraphy Strata analyzed for their formation, stratigraphic relationships, and relative time relationships based on their lithologic (rock) properties Figure 9.6
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4 Tephrostatigraphy Form of Lithostratigraphy
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Chapter 9 Geology - Chapter 9: Geology Geology = study of...

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