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Unformatted text preview: MANHATTAN PREP GRE® Verbal Strategies guide 7 GRE® is a registered trademark of the Educational Testing Service, which neither sponsors nor endorses this product. Table of Contents Manhattan Prep GRE Verbal Strategies Cover Title Page Copyright GRE Strategy Guides Letter How to Access Your Online Resources Introduction Introduction In This Chapter... Introduction The GRE Exam Verbal Question Formats in Detail Unit One: Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Title Page In This Unit Chapter 1: How to Read on the GRE Chapter 1 How to Read on the GRE In This Chapter... Logistics of Reading Comprehension Challenges of Reading Comprehension Two Extremes and a Balanced Approach Engage with the Passage Recruiting for Your Working Memory, Inc. Look for the Simple Story Link to What You Already Know Unpack the Beginning Link to What You Have Just Read Pay Attention to Signals Pick Up the Pace Practice on Non-GRE Material Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Chapter 2: Introduction to Short and Long Passages Chapter 2 Introduction to Short and Long Passages In This Chapter... Short vs. Long Components of Passages Foreshadowing Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Chapter 3: Short Passages Chapter 3 Short Passages In This Chapter... Chapter 3 Short Passages Don’t Just Read, Do Something! The Headline List Common Notations Using Your Headline List Timing for Short Passages Model Short Passage: Insect Behavior Model Headline List: Insect Behavior Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Chapter 4: Long Passages Chapter 4 Long Passages In This Chapter... Chapter 4 Long Passages Headline Notes Using Your Notes Timing for Long Passages Common Structures of Long Passages Model Long Passage: Electroconvulsive Therapy Model Headline Notes: Electroconvulsive Therapy Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Chapter 5: Strategies for RC Questions Chapter 5 Strategies for RC Questions In This Chapter... Question Types General Questions Specific Questions Strategies for All Reading Comprehension Questions Seven Strategies for Reading Comprehension Chapter 6: Question Type Analysis Chapter 6 Question Type Analysis In This Chapter... Chapter 6 Question Type Analysis Types of Wrong Answer Choices Differences Among Question Formats Model Short Passage Revisited: Insect Behavior Model Long Passage Revisited: Electroconvulsive Therapy Chapter 7: Reading Comprehension Problem Set Chapter 7 Reading Comprehension Problem Set Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Chapter 8: Argument Structure Passages Chapter 8 Argument Structure Passages In This Chapter... Chapter 8 Argument Structure Passages Identifying the Parts of an Argument Recognizing Argument Structure Passages Four-Step Process Taking Notes Strategies for All Question Types Question Types Problem Set Problem Set: Answers and Explanations Unit Two: Text Completion and Sentence Equivalence Text Completion and Sentence Equivalence Title Page In This Unit Chapter 9: Text Completion Chapter 9 Text Completion In This Chapter... Chapter 9 Text Completion Three-Step Process for Text Completions How to Write Good Fill-ins Signal Words Drill: Sentence Analysis Drill: Sentence Analysis: Answers and Explanations Double-Blank and Triple-Blank Text Completions Start with the Easier (or Easiest) Blank Tricky Aspects of Text Completion Sentences Drill: Sentence Analysis with Multiple Blanks Drill: Sentence Analysis with Multiple Blanks: Answers and Explanations Traps to Avoid During Elimination Text Completion Recap Drill: Easy Questions Drill: Medium Questions Drill: Hard Questions Solutions: 20 Easy Questions Solutions: 20 Medium Questions Solutions: 20 Hard Questions Chapter 10: Sentence Equivalence Chapter 10 Sentence Equivalence In This Chapter... Chapter 10 Sentence Equivalence Sentence Analysis Drill: Sentence Analysis Drill: Sentence Analysis: Answers and Explanations Answer Choice Analysis Finding Near-Synonym Pairs When to Use Answer Choice Analysis Drill: Answer Choice Analysis Drill: Answer Choice Analysis : Answers and Explanations What If I Don’t Know the Words? Why It Is Important to Learn Words in Context Drill: 20 Easy Questions Drill: 20 Medium Questions Drill: 20 Hard Questions Solutions: 20 Easy Questions Solutions: 20 Medium Questions Solutions: 20 Hard Questions Unit Three: Essays Essays Essay Title Page In This Unit Chapter 11: Essays Strategy Chapter 11 Essays Strategy In This Chapter... Chapter 11 Essays Strategy Analyze an Issue Analyze an Argument GRE Issue Essay Quotes Unit Four: Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Title Page In This Unit Chapter 12: Learning Vocabulary Chapter 12 Learning Vocabulary In This Chapter... Chapter 12 Learning Vocabulary Practical Strategies and Games for Learning Vocabulary Flash Card Games and Activities Use Roots Ahead of Time Using Social Media to Buttress Your Vocabulary Studies Chapter 13: Idioms and Metaphorical Language Chapter 13 Idioms and Metaphorical Language In This Chapter... Chapter 13 Idioms and Metaphorical Language List of Idioms and Metaphorical Language Drill: Decoding Idioms Drill: Decoding Idioms: Answers and Explanations Chapter 14: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Chapter 14 Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension In This Chapter... Introduction to Specialized Terms Vocabulary List for the GRE Chapter 15: Roots List Chapter 15 Roots List In This Chapter... Roots List Acknowledgments Acknowledgments Study Anywhere! Study Anywhere! GRE Verbal Strategies Retail ISBN: 978-1-5062-3823-4 Course ISBN: 978-1-5062-4850-9 Retail eISBN: 978-1-5062-3824-1 Course eISBN: 978-1-5062-4853-0 Copyright © 2018 MG Prep, LLC 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means— graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or web distribution— without the prior written permission of the publisher, MG Prep, Inc. GRE® is a registered trademark of the Educational Testing Service, which neither sponsors nor endorses this product. GRE Strategy Guides GRE Math Strategies GRE Verbal Strategies STRATEGY GUIDE SUPPLEMENTS 500 Essential Words: 500 Advanced Words: GRE® Vocabulary Flash Cards GRE® Vocabulary Flash Cards 5 lb. Book of GRE® Practice Problems September 4, 2018 Dear Student, Thank you for picking up a copy of GRE Verbal Strategies. I hope this book provides the guidance you need to get the most out of your GRE studies. At Manhattan Prep, we continually aspire to provide the best instructors and resources possible. We hope that you will find our commitment manifest in this book. If you have any questions or comments in general, please email our Student Services team at [email protected] Or give us a shout at 212-721-7400 (or 800-576-4628 in the United States or Canada). We try to keep all our books free of errors. But if you think we’ve goofed, please visit manhattanprep.com/GRE/errata. I look forward to hearing from you. Thanks again, and best of luck preparing for the GRE! Sincerely, Chris Ryan Executive Director, Product Strategy Manhattan Prep 138 West 25th Street, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10001 Tel: 646-254-6479, Fax: 646-514-7425 INTRODUCTION In This Chapter... The GRE Exam Verbal Question Formats in Detail Introduction We know that you’re looking to succeed on the GRE so that you can go to graduate school and do the things you want to do in life. We also know that you may not have read random Reading Comprehension passages and answered multiple-choice questions on them since high school. It’s going to take hard work on your part to get a top GRE score. That’s why we’ve put together the only set of books that will take you from the basics all the way up to the material you need to master for a near-perfect score—or whatever your goal score may be. You’ve taken the first step. Now it’s time to get to work! HOW TO USE THESE MATERIALS Manhattan Prep’s GRE materials are comprehensive. But keep in mind that, depending on your score goal, it may not be necessary to get absolutely everything. Grad schools only see your overall Quantitative, Verbal, and Writing scores—they don’t see exactly which strengths and weaknesses went into creating those scores. You may be enrolled in one of our courses, in which case you already have a syllabus telling you the order in which you should approach this book. But if you bought this book online or at a bookstore, feel free to approach the units —and even the chapters within the units—in whatever order works best for you. For the most part, the units, and the chapters within them, are independent; you don’t have to master one section before moving on to the next. So if you’re having a hard time with something in particular, you can make a note to come back to it later and move on to another section. Similarly, it may not be necessary to solve every single practice problem for every section. As you go through the material, continually assess whether you understand and can apply the principles in each individual section and chapter. The best way to do this is to solve the Check Your Skills and Problem Sets throughout. If you’re confident you have a concept or method down, feel free to move on. If you struggle with something, make a note of it for further review. Stay active in your learning, and stay oriented toward the test—it’s easy to read something and think you understand it, only to have trouble applying it in the 1–2 minutes you have to solve a problem. STUDY SKILLS As you’re studying for the GRE, try to integrate your learning into your everyday life. For example, vocabulary is a real part of the GRE, and it’s not something you can just cram for—you’re going to want to do at least a little bit of vocab every day. So try to learn and internalize a small amount at a time, switching up topics often to help keep things interesting. Keep in mind that, while many of your study materials are on paper (including Education Testing Service’s most recent source of official GRE questions, The Official Guide to the GRE General Test), your exam will be administered on a computer. Because this is a computer-based test, you will not be able to underline portions of reading passages or otherwise physically mark up problems. So get used to this now. Solve the problems in these books on scratch paper. (Each of our books talks specifically about what to write down for different problem types.) Again, as you study, stay focused on the test-day experience. As you progress, work on timed drills and sets of questions. Eventually, you should be taking full practice tests (available at timed conditions. ) under actual The GRE Exam EXAM STRUCTURE The GRE has six sections. You will get a 10-minute break between the third and fourth sections and a 1-minute break between the others. The Analytical Writing section, also known as the Essay, is always first. The other five sections can be seen in any order and will include: Two Verbal Reasoning sections (20 questions each in 30 minutes per section). We’ll call these sections Verbal for short. Two Quantitative Reasoning sections (20 questions each in 35 minutes per section). We’ll call these sections Math for short. Either an unscored section or a research section. An unscored section will look just like a third Verbal or Math section. You will not be told which of the three sections doesn’t count. If you get a research section, it will be identified as such, and it will be the last section you get. Section Section Type # 1 # Time Scored? 30 minutes Yes Questions Essay 2 essays each 2 Verbal #1 Approx. 20 30 minutes Yes Approx. 20 35 minutes Yes Approx. 20 30 minutes Yes Approx. 20 35 minutes Yes Approx. 20 30 or 35 No Math #1 3 (order can vary) 10-Minute Break 4 Verbal #2 Math #2 5 (order can vary) ? Unscored Section (Verbal or Math, order can vary) Last Research Section minutes Varies Varies No NAVIGATING THE QUESTIONS IN A SECTION The GRE offers you the ability to move freely around the questions in a section. You can go forward and backward one by one and can even jump directly to any question from the review list. The review list provides a snapshot of which questions you have answered, which ones you have tagged for “mark and review,” and which ones are incomplete. You should double-check the review list for completion if you finish the section early. Using the review list feature will take some practice as well, which is why we’ve built it into our online practice exams. The majority of test-takers will be pressed for time. Some people won’t be able to go back to multiple problems at the end of the section. Generally, if you can’t get a question the first time, you won’t be able to get it the second time around either. With these points in mind, here’s what we recommend: Do the questions in the order in which they appear. When you encounter a difficult question, do your best to eliminate answer choices that you know are wrong. If you’re not sure of an answer, take an educated guess from the choices remaining. Do NOT skip it and hope to return to it later. Using the “mark” button at the top of the screen, mark up to three questions per section that you think you might be able to solve with more time. Mark a question only after you have taken an educated guess. Always click on the review list at the end of a section. This way, you can quickly make sure you have neither skipped nor incompletely answered any questions. If you have time, identify any questions that you marked for review and return to them. If you do not have any time remaining, you will have already taken good guesses at the tough ones. What you want to avoid is surfing—clicking forward and backward through the questions searching for “easy” ones. This will eat up valuable time. Of course, you’ll want to move through the tough ones quickly if you can’t get them, but try to avoid skipping around. Following this guidance will take practice. Use our practice exams to fine-tune your approach. Verbal Question Formats in Detail The 20 questions in each Verbal section can be broken down by format as follows: 10 Reading Comprehension questions These will be associated with five or so passages. Most of these passages are just one paragraph long, but one or two are much longer. A passage typically has between one and four questions associated with it. As for the questions themselves, most are standard multiple-choice (pick one of A, B, C, D, or E). Some ask you to pick one or more choices from a list or to select a sentence within the passage. 6 Text Completion questions You are given a text of one to five sentences. There are one, two, or three blanks in that text. Your task is to select the best word or short phrase for each blank from a small set of choices. 4 Sentence Equivalence questions You are given a single sentence with one blank and six choices. Your task is to choose two words or short phrases thatproduce “equivalent sentences”—that is, they means essentially the same thing. These sentences must also be sensible and coherent. Before going into these Verbal question types further, let’s go back to the beginning of the exam: the Analytical Writing section, also known as the Essay (although it’s really two essays). ESSAY QUESTIONS The Analytical Writing section consists of two separately timed 30-minute tasks: Analyze an Issue and Analyze an Argument. As you can imagine, the 30minute time limit implies that you aren’t aiming to write an essay that would garner a Pulitzer Prize nomination, but rather to complete the tasks adequately and according to the directions. Each essay is scored separately, but your reported essay score is the average of the two, rounded up to the next half-point increment on a 0–6 scale. Issue Task: This essay prompt will present a claim, generally one that is vague enough to be interpreted in various ways and discussed from numerous perspectives. Your job as a test-taker is to write a response discussing the extent to which you agree or disagree and support your position. Don’t sit on the fence—pick a side! For some examples of Issue Task prompts, visit the GRE website here: ol Argument Task: This essay prompt will be an argument comprised of both a claim (or claims) and evidence. Your job is to dispassionately discuss the argument’s structural flaws and merits (well, mostly the flaws). Don’t agree or disagree with the argument—simply evaluate its logic. For some examples of Argument Task prompts, visit the GRE website here: nt/pool READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS You are probably already familiar with the format of the most common Reading Comprehension question: pick one of five answer choices. However, you may be less familiar with the other two Reading Comprehension formats. Select One or More Answer Choices and Select-inPassage For the question type Select One or More Answer Choices, you are given three statements about a passage and asked to “indicate all that apply.” Either one, two, or all three can be correct (there is no “none of the above” option). There is no partial credit; you must indicate all of the correct choices and none of the incorrect choices. On your screen, the answer choices for “Select One or More” will be boxes, not circles (as with standard “pick just one” multiple-choice questions). The boxes are a good visual reminder that you should be ready to pick more than one choice on these questions, just as you might check more than one box on a checklist. Strategy Tip: On Select One or More Answer Choices, don’t let your brain be tricked into telling you, “Well, if two of them have been right so far, the other one must be wrong,” or any other arbitrary idea about how many of the choices should be correct. Make sure to consider each choice independently! You cannot use the process of elimination in the same way as you do on normal multiple-choice questions. For the question type Select-in-Passage, you are given an assignment such as “Select the sentence in the passage that explains why the experiment’s results were discovered to be invalid.” Clicking anywhere on the sentence in the passage will highlight it. (As with any GRE question, you will have to click “Confirm” to submit your answer, so don’t worry about accidentally selecting the wrong sentence due to a slip of the mouse.) Strategy Tip: On Select-in-Passage, if the passage is short, consider numbering each sentence (i.e., writing 1 2 3 4 on your paper) and crossing off each choice as you determine that it isn’t the answer. If the passage is long, you might write a number for each paragraph (I, II, III) and tick off each number as you determine that the correct sentence is not located in that paragraph. Now give these unusual question types a try. You can find answers and explanations after this section. The sample questions below are based on this passage: Physicist Robert Oppenheimer, director of the fateful Manhattan Project, said, “It is a profound and necessary truth that the deep things in science are not found because they are useful; they are found because it was possible to find them.” In a later address at MIT, Oppenheimer presented the thesis that scientists could be held only very nominally responsible for the consequences of their research and discovery. Oppenheimer asserted that ethics, philosophy, and politics have very little to do with the day-to-day work of the scientist and that scientists could not rationally be expected to predict all the effects of their work. Yet, in a talk in 1945 to the Association of Los Alamos Scientists, Oppenheimer offered some reasons why the Manhattan Project scientists built the atomic bomb; the justifications included “fear that Nazi Germany would build it first” and “hope that it would shorten the war.” For question #1, consider each of the three choices separately and indicate all that apply. 1. The passage implies that Robert Oppenheimer would most likely have agreed with which ...
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