Week_12_HIV_STD_Education (1).pdf - IMPORTANT Homework#5 Socioecological Model is due Monday(11\/12(focuses on the harm reduction model WARNING graphic

Week_12_HIV_STD_Education (1).pdf - IMPORTANT Homework#5...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/30/2018 IMPORTANT: Homework #5 Socioecological Model is due Monday (11/12) (focuses on the harm reduction model) WARNING: graphic images of genital diseases VIRAL STD’S/STI’S This group of STD’s/STI’s are all transmitted by virus & have no or limited cure rates. have greater consequences and may not really clear away 1 10/30/2018 Human Papaillomavirus (HPV) More than 100 types of HPV exist; more than 30 types can infect the genital area. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, unrecognized, or subclinical. Genital HPV infection is common and usually self-limited. Genital HPV infection occurs more frequently than visible genital warts among both men and women and cervical cell changes among women. - starting to vaccine school age children before they become sexually active - more common in women, hard to test men - possible to have severe complications, such as closing of orifices HPV Warts In the absence of genital warts or cervical SIL, treatment is not recommended for subclinical genital HPV infection, whether it is diagnosed by colposcopy, biopsy, acetic acid application, or through the detection of HPV by laboratory tests. Genital HPV infection frequently goes away on its own, and no therapy has been identified that can eradicate infection. In the presence of coexistent SIL, management should be based on histopathologic findings. 2 10/30/2018 Genital Herpes Virus Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years. - same virus as the one that affects the lip, just a different location - skin to skin transmission, able to transmit before a blister appears (need barriers) - hard to test for without a blister, can test positive for things such as chicken pox Herpes Sores/Blisters There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy for symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners. 3 - certain groups are more at risk, especially Vietnam era veterans or early age polio vaccine receivers - it is now curable, but extremely expensive 10/30/2018 - concern if the virus will become resistant to current treatment if a person becomes reinfected Hepatitis C Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States; an estimated 3.2 million persons are chronically infected (449). Although HCV is not efficiently transmitted sexually, persons at risk for infection through injection-drug use might seek care in STD treatment facilities, HIV counseling and testing facilities, correctional facilities, drug treatment facilities, and other public health settings where STD and HIV prevention and control services are available. Persons newly infected with HCV typically are either asymptomatic or have a mild clinical illness. HCV RNA can be detected in blood within 1–3 weeks after exposure. The average time from exposure to antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) seroconversion is 8–9 weeks, and anti-HCV can be detected in >97% of persons by 6 months after exposure. Chronic HCV infection develops in 70%–85% of HCV-infected persons; 60%–70% of chronically infected persons develop evidence of active liver disease. Most infected persons remain unaware of their infection because they are not clinically ill. However, infected persons serve as a source of transmission to others and are at risk for CLD and other HCV-related chronic diseases for decades after infection. 4 10/30/2018 Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS) - difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is just having the virus, while AIDS is showing the symptoms - one diagnosed with AIDS, you stay on the list of people positive infectious bodily fluids: blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions, and semen *saliva is a possible source of infection, but not probable* 5 10/30/2018 HIV - the human immunodeficiency virus - is a virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (also called T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease. HIV can be passed from person to person if someone with HIV infection has sex with or shares drug injection needles with another person. It also can be passed from a mother to her baby when she is pregnant, when she delivers the baby, or if she breastfeeds her baby. AIDS - the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - is a disease you get when HIV destroys your body’s immune system. Normally, your immune system helps you fight off illness. When your immune system fails you can become very sick and can die. 6 10/30/2018 more likely to come in contact with, but they do have treatment options and can go away BACTERIAL & PARASITIC INFECTION This group of STD’s/STI’s can easily be treated as long as they are diagnosed. 7 10/30/2018 Syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called "the great imitator" because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases. Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils. - the more cases in syphilis, the more cases of HIV - three stages: sore spots, rashes, loss of brain function and death 8 10/30/2018 Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix (opening to the womb), uterus (womb), and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women, and in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. - also known as the “clap” - common, can be diagnosed with urine tests - can become septic and kill the individual - disproportionately affects African Americans 9 10/30/2018 Gonorrhea Infection 10 10/30/2018 -looks the same as gonorrhea - starting to affect more people in recent years Chlamydia Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man. Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. In 2010, 1,307,893 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2.8 million infections occur annually in the U.S. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated. Chlamydia Infection 11 10/30/2018 Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis (or “trich”) is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected. Trichomoniasis is considered the most common curable STD. In the United States, an estimated 3.7 million people have the infection, but only about 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis. Infection is more common in women than in men, and older women are more likely than younger women to have been infected. - most common college age STI - can be lab diagnosed, or the unusual smell (“whiff test”) 12 10/30/2018 Trichomoniasis Protozoa & Infection Pubic Lice (Crabs) Pubic lice, or Pthirus pubis, are parasitic insects that can be found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.). Pubic lice survive by feeding on human blood and are usually spread through sexual contact - same lice that can live on your scalp - some types are starting to become resistant to some chemical methods or removal 13 10/30/2018 Pubic Lice Infestation Scabies Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies. - bends of your arms or legs, in between fingers or toes - more abundant in large communal areas - can transmit from being near someone with it 14 10/30/2018 Scabies Infestation 8:00pm - will also provide treatment for free, and treatment for your partners - PrEP is for prevention of HIV transmission, but does not mean you will never get it 15 ...
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  • Fall '13
  • KatherineSchnider
  • Sexually transmitted diseases and infections

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