Final Study Guide - ILS 205 Final Study Guide Homer The...

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ILS 205 Final Study Guide Homer, The Iliad Achilles: Main character of the Iliad who is insulted by Agamemmnon because he stole his woman. Ancient Greeks held up Achilles as the quintessential man because he felt rage the deepest, was the best warrior, and was courageous. Agamemmnon: A character in the Iliad who insulted Achilles by stealing his woman, therefore dishonoring him. Hector: The leading fighter for the Trojans. Hector fights for his family while Achilles fights for personal glory. Courage: Risking life and limb for the sake of something. Rational Actor Model: Humans are rational creatures attempt to achieve happiness through a hierarchy of rational preferences. For it to work correctly life must be your first preference, and because of this Achilles is not a rational actor. Courageous Actor Model: One in which courage is the first preference, not life. Achilles is a courageous actor. Honor: Your esteem in the eyes of others. The measure for the Homeric world was “Is this honorable?”, but Socrates questioned this and decided the measure was, “Is this just?” Herodotus, The Histories Eucles: An Athenian who ran 26.2 miles to Athens to pronounce the Athenian victory at Marathon. This is where we get the word Marathon. Xerxes: A Persian ruler who took control after Darius’s death, and beat the Spartans at Thermopolae. He wanted timesasa for his father. Timesasa: Revenge. Xerxes avenged his father’s death at Thermopolae. Battle of Marathon: The Athenians won a miraculous victory. After this victory, Eucles ran to Marathon to pronounce this victory and later died. Hellenic League: The Greek confederacy formed by multiple city-states. At this point they stopped fighting each other and united against foreign invaders, which signified a move from self-identification as a member of a city to membership of a state. Leonidas: King of the Spartans in “histories”. Led 300 at Thermopolae as a signal to the rest of Greece that there was still hope because Sparta never breaks down. *look this upEphialtes: Told the Persians (?) where the mountain pass was at Thermopolae. This allowed them to win the battle. Phalanx: Fighting where you stand in line with your shield in your left hand to cover the man on your left, and your spear in the right hand. When you fall, the person behind you steps in. The Spartans used this at Thermopylae. Aristodemus: Spartan that had an eye infection and chose not to fight. He was dishonored. Euretreys: Spartan with eye infection that fought and died. This looked bad for Aristodemus because he could have fought. Phuego: To flee. Instead of fighting, Aristodemus fled Thermopylae. Malinger: To fake injury to get out of a commitment. There was deep suspicion that Aristodemus malingered to get out of battle.
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Agathos: Upright, honorable.
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