INTD 200 MIDTERM.docx - INTD 200 MIDTERM Millennium...

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INTD 200 MIDTERMMillennium Development Goals-2000-2015-Goal setting as a global governance strategy to achieve effective and positive development outcomes -Rooted in the multidimensional human development approach-Clear and comprehensive goals that direct development actors towards “desirable” developmentoutcomes 1.Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger2.Achieve universal primary education3.Promote gender equality and empower women4.Reduce child mortality 5.Improve maternal health6.Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases 7.Ensure environmental sustainability 8.Global partnership for development Sustainable Development Goals-17 goals to improve life worldwide -2030 deadline Limitations on Development Goals-Very ambitious goals-Lack of legally binding obligations imposed on the state -Ignoring actual capacity of the state -Lack of resources required to pursue the goals -Underestimate contextual factors that hinder development outcomes Multi-stakeholder Partnerships -partnerships between governments, business, NGOs, the UN, and other actors-matter becauserealization of effective allocation of resourcesconstruction of a monitor and review mechanism – careful evaluation to determine a success) Human Development -overcoming growing inequalities and the one-dimensional and top-down approach-1990s-present-MDGs/SDGs-Key IdeasCapabilities approach: providing resources for achieving one’s full potential (freedoms, choices, and full potential)
Multidimensional measurement = HDI: beyond income-based measurements Bottom-up and participatory approach: treating the poor as an active participant Sustainable and equitable development: recognition of long-term, fair, and sustainable outcomes -Key actors:The state: provides effective public investment in education, health, etc. Civil society: fills the gap in public provision of resources The market: brings micro economic opportunities and macroeconomic growth -Key thinkers Amartya Sen: theoretical concept of HDoCommodities as a means to development; resources are for expanding capabilities and freedoms Mahbub ul-Haq: actual measurement of HD-Basic human needs approach emerged in the 70sKey argument: income increases were not enough to reduce povertyEducation, safe water, family planning, health services are also needed Treated the poor as target groups not participants in development Model Pathways for Human Freedoms 1.Provision of resources (investment in key infrastructure – education, health, skills, training)2.Expansion of choices (opportunities in employment, productive activities, political participation)3.Cultivation of human capabilities -Outcome = human freedoms in development making development more sustainable Development Crisis 1980s -Failure of ISI led to debt crisis in Latin America -Failure of development projects and lack of progress in Africa -Growing inequality in developing countries due to neoliberal policies -Economic success of NICs in East Asia = developmental states

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