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Psych exam 2 study guide - Psych Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter...

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Psych Study Guide: Exam 2 Chapter 5: Learning Learning : a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience o Habituation: the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus Classical Conditioning : learning in which a neutral stimulus elicits a response after paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response o Ivan Pavlov ; Russian physiologist, discovered CC o a.k.a. “classical learning” o pavlov’s experiment: dogs initially drooling to food..then rings bell with food..dog eventually drools to bell o neutral stimulus : stimulus that, before conditioning, doesn’t naturally bring about response (bell initially) o unconditioned stimulus (UCS) : stimulus that naturally brings about particular response (food) o unconditioned response (UCR) : response that is natural and needs no response (salivation) o conditioned stimulus : neutral stimulus that has been paired with unconditioned stimulus to bring about response (bell after training) o conditioned response : response to conditioned stimulus after training (salivation to bell alone) o Pavlov was wrong in assumption that strength of CS is often stronger that strength of UCS. Also wrong in assumption that linking stimuli and response occurs in mechanistic, unthinking way o Information theory: CS gives us information about ourselves o Biological mechanisms: nuclei in the cerebellum, if nuclei are destroyed, animals can’t relate CS to UCS o Sequence and timing Backwards: UCS presented before CS; wont work Simultaneous: CS and UCS presented simultaneously; wont work Delayed: CS presented just before UCS; will work Trace: CS presented then turned off, then UCS presented; sort of works. Relies of a memory trace during discontinued period Conditioning principles in human behavior o John Watson; proved CC to be at the root of certain irrational fears o Paired banging noise with rat..eventually child developed fear of rat w/out noise o Eventually child generalized fear with anything resembling rat
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o CC can lead to phobias : intense, irrational fears o Posttraumatic stress disorder can also be produced by CC Principles of C.C. o Extinction : when previous CR decreases in frequency and eventually disappears because CS is repeatedly presented without UCS o Spontaneous recovery : reemergence of extinguished CS after period of rest with no further conditioning o Stimulus generalization : when a CR occurs following a stimulus similar to the original CS o Stimulus discrimination : distinguishing actual CS from similar stimuli Challenging Basic Assumptions o Pavlov thought linking stimuli and response was mechanistic and involuntary. Theorists argue learners can develop understanding about which UCS are matched with which CS o Counterconditioning : Mary Jones conditioned a different emotional response to a CS Peter was afraid of rabbits..graham crackers with rabbits..eliminated fear o Exception to rule was John Garcia ; conditioned taste aversion
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