Psych Exam 1 study guide

Psych Exam 1 study guide - Psych Exam 1 study guide Chapter...

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Psych Exam 1 study guide Chapter 1 Branches of Psychology o Social psych: study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others o Cross-cultural psych: similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups o Evolutionary psych: how behavior is influenced by genetic inheritance Roots and Perspectives of Psychology o Wilhelm Wundt ; father of modern psych (1879), established first psych lab Used structuralism : focused on uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kids of mental states and activities Used introspection to study mind structure: presented people with a stimulus and asked them to describe what they experienced o William James ; first American psychologist, influenced by Darwinism Used functionalism: what mind does and how behavior functions, the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their surroundings o Gestalt psychology: how perception is organized, how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes o Neuroscience perspective : how people and nonhumans function biologically, brain imaging o Psychodynamic perspective : view that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little control Sigmund Freud ; used psychoanalysis and idea of the unconscious. Mind as an iceberg with only the tip as conscious and the rest “beneath the surface” (unconscious) referring to ideas, beliefs, feelings. Felt people could be observed by their unconscious mind. Stressed conflict of urges v. what we’re supposed to do. Early childhood influences personality and character o Behavioral perspective : rejects inner workings of mind, focuses on the observable, measurable behavior Pavlov- classical conditioning John Watson ; first American behaviorist, brought psych into advertising, emphasized understanding behavior by its environmental determinants B. F. Skinner ; focused on outcomes of behavior and probability of repeated acts due to outcome
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Learning through observation as well as reward and punishment Bandura- Social learning theory o Cognitive perspective : how people think, understand, and know about the world. Mind influences thought, which influences behavior o Herbert Simon- information processing : compare human thinking to working of a computer. Takes in info and transforms, stores, and retrieves it. Thought analysis to influence behavior o Humanistic perspective: all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior The Scientific Method o Scientific method : approach to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior o 3 steps: identifying questions of interest, formulating an explanation, and carrying out research designed to support or refute explanation o Theories : frameworks for explaining various events or processes, broad explanations and predictions o Hypotheses
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Psych Exam 1 study guide - Psych Exam 1 study guide Chapter...

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