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poli sci study guide - Poli Sci Terms exam 1 Government...

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Poli. Sci. Terms: exam 1 Government- institutions and people that rule over a territory and people o Autocracy- individual rules o Oligarchy- small group rules o Constitutional- formal and effective limits placed on government powers o Authoritarian- no formal limits, yet restrained by power of other institutions o Totalitarian- no formal limits, eliminate any challenges o Limited- written constitution, formal limits on power o Federal- power divided between national and state o Representative- legitimacy derived from popular consent o Current: constitutional, representative government Politics- distribution of advantages and disadvantages; who gets what, when, and how Political science- social science interested in human behavior, cause and effect Political culture- orientation of citizens toward political system and themselves within system Liberal consensus/American creed: equal treatment and opportunity o Individualism- allow individuals to succeed to max. extent, equal chance rather than equal result o Property- right to acquire and use private property with minimal restrictions, use as part of society o Liberty- freedom from government restraint, rights our inherently ours o Democracy- government actions reflect will of the people o Religion- freedom to practice religion, US exception to trend of economic success, less religion Challenges to liberal consensus o Anti-liberalism- hierarchy, racism, inequality o Multiculturalism- group focus, group heritage, cultural unity; eliminates American uniqueness Libertarianism- few, if any government limitations Classical republicanism/communitarianism- for good of community,
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sacrifice private interest Constitutional process: 5 key problems o Resolve basic elite divisions Big states v. small states Pragmatism- balance needs of big states and small states Great compromise- constitutional convention 1787; gave each state equal number of senators regardless of population o Protect commerce and property: national control over commerce and finance, supremacy of national laws and treaties, contracts must be honored Shay’s rebellion- Daniel Shays led farmers in rebellion against government. Made congress reconsider A.O.C….constitutional convention…Constitution o Establish legitimacy: representativeness of government, direct election of house of rep.s, promise of bill of rights o Prevent excessive democracy: not to be entirely overrun or determined by people Bicameral legislature: legislature must go through both house and congress Checks and balances- no one has ultimate sovereignty Staggered terms- different length and times for election Indirect election: presidency o Join adaptability with stability: difficult amending procedure Constitutional interpretation- meaning of document changed by supreme court’s interpretation Federalists- prefer government and constitution o Popular view: liberty is safest in small, direct democracies or republics with small districs o
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