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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 7 Be able to name and describe the first two stages in Erikson’s psychosocial theory and the ages to which they apply. 1 st stage – basic trust vs mistrust: does not depend on the amount of food offered but the quality of caregiving (gentle, patient, attentive)/age 1/trusting infant expects world to be good feels confident about exploring/mistrusting cannot count on the kindness of others, so withdraws from society 2 nd stage – autonomy vs shame and doubt: toilet training parents provide suitable guidance to toddlers/age 2/secures independence and personal development more tolerance from parents to give kid extra time to finish using the toilet/over or undercontrolling parents make toddlers doubtful because parents will act for them. When do infants begin social smiling; when do they begin laughing? 6-10 weeks; 3-4 months What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions of happiness, anger, sadness, and fear in infants? Universal and promotes survival What is stranger anxiety? Expression of fear to strangers (second half of first year) What is social referencing? Actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation What are the self-conscious emotions and when do they begin to appear? Shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride; appears in the middle of the second year (18-24 months) What is emotional self-regulation? Adjust emotional state to a comfortable level so we can accomplish our goals (ex: when you refuse to go to movies and decide to do homework) Provide some examples of how infants manage self-regulation. Effortful control helps children manage intense emotion and teach them strategies How? Autonomy and mastery of cognitive and social skills What is temperament? Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity (quickness) and self-regulation (strategies that modify that reactivity) [a person’s behavior] Describe the three types of children’s temperaments identified by Thomas and Chess. Easy child – quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences Difficult child – irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, tends to react negatively and intensely Slow-to-warm up child – inactive; shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli; is negative in mood; adjusts slowly to new experiences What does research indicate about the stability of temperament? Low on infancy and toddlerhood and only moderate from the preschool years on (not stable) What about the heritability of temperament? What about the heritability of temperament?...
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- Fall '07
- Developmental Psychology