Reading Notes Ch. 2 - PL PA 201 Readings Ch. 2 Fungus...

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PL PA 201 Readings Ch. 2 - Fungus reproduce by way of spores - Germ tube – a balloon-like protuberance o When germ tube is at least half as long as the spore, it becomes known as a hyphae - A large collection of hyphae is called mycelium - Mushroom growers call masses of hyphae “spawn” - The cell wall at the growing end of each hypha must remain elastic enough to allow for wall extension and yet rigid enough to contain protoplasm and allow for the streaming of nutrients to other parts of the fungus body - Mycotoxins – fungal by-products that are poisonous to animals o Purpose of by-products its to discourage potential competitors from getting more than their share of the available food - Antibiotics – metabolites that inhibit growth of microbes - 1992 issue of Nature, spread to NY Times and National public radio o Armillaria bulbosa – collected mushrooms from a 35 acre woodland in northern Michigan o Mushrooms were identical in every way o Mass of mycelium from which shrooms originated were one of the largest and oldest (1,500 years) living organisms on Earth. - Parent culture of spores = conidia - Sexual reproduction of spores allows for more rapid evolution of new strains of species - Windblown conidia of Microsphaera alni are often produced in chains of spores o Spores are dry and powdery at maturity o Easily whisked away by the next breeze o If windblown, fungus perishes easily because it occupies a special niche, as opposed to if the fungus rots leaves on the forest floor - Meadow mushroom o Most of the other fungi that fruit as mushrooms, brackets, or other large woody of fleshy bodies disperse their spores like the meadow mushroom o Found on lawns in temperate climates o Close relative of the button mushroom that Campbell’s puts in its soups o Tasty treat o Underside of mushroom is lined with hundreds of thin, pink to chocolate- brown slices or gills of fungus tissue
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2 o Gills, when looked through a microscope, have hundreds of thousands of cells, each shaped like an elongated balloon. o Cells can be special spacer cells to help keep everything from getting too crowded - Basidia (generative cells) will have four (occasionally, two) spikelike projections on their surfaces o Resting on the spikes will be a basidiospore When basidiospores are mature and ready to start a new colony, they fall free from the basidia and drift slowly down between neighboring gills until they are out from under the mushroom cap and able to be blown clear of it. Fate is left to chance o If mushrooms get tipped off too far, few if any spores will escape o Mushrooms with thinner stems will actually continue to grow if they are tipped over o Gills can re-orient, so as to not release spores onto each other
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Reading Notes Ch. 2 - PL PA 201 Readings Ch. 2 Fungus...

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