Chapter4Tindall_Shi.pdf - 7 not done Grace Tarantino 1A Name Class Period 10 12 2018 Due Date Guided Reading Analysis Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest

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Unformatted text preview: 7 not done Grace Tarantino 1A Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ 10 12 2018 Due Date:___/____/____ Guided Reading & Analysis: Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest Chapter 4- From Colonies to States, pp 147-193 Reading Assignment: Ch. 4 or other resource for content corresponding to Period 3. Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using higher level thinking skills with new knowledge gained from the reading. Basic Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre-Read: Skim: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Flip through the chapter and note the titles and subtitles. Look at images and their read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to (Image Source: Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania Gazette, reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order 1754, Public Domain This graphic was based on a common to critically understand what you read! superstition that a severed snake could come back to life if its Write Write your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. sections were joined prior to sundown. Believe it or not! ) Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 3: Key Concept 3.1: British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War. Key Concept 3.2: The American Revolution’s democratic and republican ideals inspired new experiments with different forms of government. Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America and competition over resources, boundaries, and trade intensified conflicts among peoples and nations. Guided Reading, pp 147-193 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. Mercantilism and the Empire, pp 147-156 Key Concepts & Main Ideas The increasing political, economic, and cultural exchanges within the “Atlantic World” had a profound impact on the development of colonial societies in North America. Notes: Competing Neighbors Analysis Mercantilism and the Empire… Identify the causes and motivations of the British mercantile system. Which one is most significant? Why? Consider the Atlantic economy article. Enrich mother country To grow in wealth and self-sufficiency Increase political power and private wealth The main goal was to achieve a selfsufficiency that excluded other countries from trade. Their hope was to be able to reach this through the colonies of America and their colonists. This economic philosophy asserted that nations were in competition for a fixed amount of wealth in the world. Economic rivals with us natural enemies competing for limited resources like access to raw materials and precious metals. Acts of Trade and Navigation… Past soon after Charles II sought a new colonial policy of control, certain goods called enumerated commodities were to be shipped only by British merchants so that no other European power could profit from their sale. Explain the political, economic, and cultural impact of the British mercantile system. P- English are getting richer allowing gov’t to have more power with bigger military E- tobacco product was main crop that allowed the British to become richer 1 C- The right to religious freedom in America is more acceptable “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American native peoples stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, and reshaped labor systems. Britain’s desire to maintain a viable North American empire in the face of growing internal challenges and external competition inspired efforts to strengthen its imperial control, stimulating increasing resistance from colonists who had grown accustomed to a large measure of autonomy. Impact on the Colonies… The colonies were to export more goods than they imported, and they were supposed to only send the goods they produced to England, on English vessels. Enforcement of the Acts… -All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least three-quarters English or colonial -Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port Glorious Revolution and Impact on Colonial Trade The Dominion of New England… King James II attempts to consolidate all of the New England colonies and tries to tighten his control over the colonies and curve the rights of the people. The significance of this is that the Glorious Revolution puts the end to the Dominion of New England and restores the rights of the people. Explain how changes in Europe/England influence the political and economic life in the colonies. -the rights of the colonists were being taken away, they no longer had much say in their government 2. Empires at War, pp 156-163 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States. Notes: Warfare in the Colonies Analysis Empires at War… What was the chief reason for colonial discontent? -War between Britain, Spain, & France (worldwide) -Battles took place in Europe, India, & North America -Lasted around 74 years (1689-1763) -Winner would get control in West Indies and Canada The First Three Wars… -King William’s War (1689-1697), Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713), King George (II)’s War (1744-1748) -The colonists were angry because Britain had given France back a fort (Duquesne) that they had fought so hardly to gain from them List three major ways England’s war for empire impacted the colonies in North America. forced to protect themselves against foreign attacks forced to send their own people as 2. troops to fight/ protect 1. 3. Britain angered the colonists when, in the peace treaty The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)… Te -Fighting began in the colonies and spread to Europe -Known in Europe as Seven Years’ War; North American part of the war called the French and Indian War xt 2 I. List three reasons the Albany Plan, aka “Join or Die,” failed. Beginning of the War… -French provoked the British by building forts in the Ohio River Valley -Virginia governor sent George Washington and small army to stop the French from completing their Fort Duquesne -Washington and his men had to surrender in 1754 (began the war) The Albany Plan of Union… rejected it because they believed it would limit their own authority/ powers 2. thought it might take away some of their rights 3. These colonies were also afraid the plan would lead to them losing land or commerce 1. -Plan adopted by delegates from 7 of the American colonies in 1754 -Developed by Benjamin Franklin -Provided: international government, tax-collecting & trooprecruiting systems What was the most significant impact of the Treaty of Paris, 1763 (aka the Peace of Paris)? Explain your reasoning. The British View… States. - The Treaty of Paris in 1763 was very significant because it not only British Victory… -British prime minister William Pitt wanted the military to focus on established the British as the main power in North America, but also conquering Canada ended with the changing of the views -They did this by retaking Louisbourg in 1758, General James the British and the American colonists Wolfe gaining Quebec in 1758, & taking Montreal in 1760 had of each other(British thought they -Ended with the Peace Treaty of Paris in 1763 Immediate Effects of the War… did great during the war and colonists didn’t and vice versa) -Britain gained unchallenged supremacy in North America and became established as the world’s dominant naval power Compare the British View to the Colonial View -American colonies weren’t threatened by French and Spanish attacks and explain why these opposing views are -Change in how Britain and the colonists viewed each other significant to the development of the United -Britain had a low opinion of colonial military abilities -Britain noted some colonies refused to give money/ troops for the war -This convinced them that the colonists were unable/ unwilling to defend Britain’s expanding new frontiers The Colonial View… -Colonists were proud of their fighting in the wars (confidence) -They weren’t impressed with British troops/ leadership (bad warfare methods) -After the Seven Year’s War the British saw the colonies as having poor militaristic abilities and incapable of defending themselves. However the colonists believed they had fought well during the wars and saw the British military as unimpressive. These views would push them apart and lead Britain to want to control the colonies better, resulting in the colonists declaring their independence (eventually creating the U.S) 3. Reorganization of the British Empire, pp 163-167 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis After the British defeat of the French, white– Indian conflicts continued to erupt as native groups sought Reorganization of the British Empire… Defend or refute the following statement: 1763 was an important watershed year. both to continue trading with Europeans and to resist the encroachment of British colonists on traditional tribal lands. -Britain previously didn’t enforce its Navigation Laws (Salutary Neglect) -Britain had to pay for the previous 4 wars -British landowners pressured to reduce heavy taxes from wars -King George III and Parliament (Whigs) wanted the colonies to bear the cost Pontiac’s Rebellion… -Indian Chief Pontiac led major attack on western frontier settlements in 1763 -Indians were angry at Europeans for migrating west this year Britain issued the Proclamation Line prohibition, which angered the colonists and made them begin wanting Britain to stop interfering with their lives in America. List three pieces of evidence to support your view: Colonists disregarded the prohibition 1. and moved westward anyways 2. Britain also assaulted the colonists 3. ith more taxes colonists became somewhat united by their mutual anger towards the British government 3 Proclamation of 1763… -Britain wanted to stabilize western frontier and prevent future conflicts between the colonists and Indians -Issued this law to stop colonists from settling west of the Appalachians Map Break! The 13 Colonies 1763 Name one piece of evidence to support the opposing view: The map below (captured from Wikipedia) shows North American territorial gains of Spain in 1762 and Britain in 1763. -Many people could argue that 1763 wasn’t a watershed year because it didn’t have as much of an impact as movements like the Great Awakening, Pontiac’s Rebellion, or the Boston Tea Party had in uniting the people better Explain the significance of the territorial changes from 1754 to 1763. Text -These territorial changes meant more land for the English colonists to migrate west to, and for Spain it meant an increase in land and economic prosperity. Using a highlighter, trace the location of the Proclamation Line of 1763. What was the purpose of this line? -The Proclamation Line of 1763 was meant to prohibit the English colonists from migrating and settling west (colonists went anyways). If the United States bought Louisiana from France in 1803, why does this1763 map show Louisiana as Spanish territory? Maybe it shows that Louisiana is Spanish territory because at one point France might have lost some of that American territory to the Spanish 4 4. British Actions and Colonial Reactions, pp 167-172 Key Concepts & Main Ideas During and after the imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain. Notes: Regulating the Colonies Analysis Colonial Policy New Revenues and Regulations… Identify the major causes and effects of the Stamp Act controversy. -King George III’s treasury chancellor/ prime minister Lord George Grenville pushed some measures through Parliament that would infuriate the colonists Caused by: - Lord Grenville wanted to raise funds for the British military in the colonies -Debt Britain still has from the seven Years’ War Sugar Act (1764)… -“Revenue Act” placed on foreign sugar and certain luxuries -Meant to raise money for the crown -Accompanied by stricter enforcement of Navigation Acts (to stop smuggling) Currency Act (1764) the British ban on printing colonial money in order to alleviate British creditors' fears of being payed in the depreciated currency of the colonists. Quartering Act (1765)…(Look up) -Required colonists to provide food/ housing for British soldiers stationed in the colonies Stamp Act (1765)… -Created by Lord Grenville to raise funds for the British military in the colonies -Required revenue stamps to be put on most printed paper: legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, advertisements, etc… Effects of: -Colonists were outraged by this direct tax and did things like intimidate/ assault revenue officials (Sons & daughter of Liberty) and boycotting What was the most significant cause of the controversy? - The British didn’t think it was bad to tax the colonists for money for the troops protecting the colonies. What was the most significant effect of the controversy? led to the colonists pushing back against the British by doing things like boycotting and intimidating revenue officials (more freedom/ rights) The main source of resentment among colonists was: Whig Response -they protested for more colonial rights and imperial relations Colonial Response -That they had to pay a direct tax (”taxation without representation”) that they felt was completely unnecessary/ unimportant -they united through the increasingly unreasonable and unconstitutional demands that the mother country had made on them since Declaratory Act (1776)… -In 1766 Grenville replaced by new prime minister and Parliament revoked the Stamp Act -Asserted that Parliament could tax/ make laws for the colonies no matter what -Renewed conflicts between colonists and British government 5 5. Second Phase of the Crisis, pp 172-176 Key Concepts & Main Ideas During and after the imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain. Notes Analysis The Townshend Acts… Explain the limitations of the repeal [of the Townshend Acts] in restoring positive relations between England and its ‘13 colonies’ in North America. -Proposed by new treasury chancellor Charles Townshend (1767) -Collected taxes on imported glass, paper, and tea -Revenues had to pay crown officials in the colonies -Lead to more smuggling and assemblies using writs of assistance (general license to search anywhere) Repeal of the Townshend Acts… -Lord Frederick North became the new prime minister -Urged Parliament to repeal Townshend Acts -Repealed in 1770 (no more boycotts/ conflicts for 3 years) -Parliament still retained a small tea tax on the colonists -Even if the Townshend Acts were repealed Britain would probably come up with another tax for the colonists, which would continue to anger them and seek their independence either way Of the following, whose contribution was most significant to the emerging American identity? Charles Townshend, John Dickenson, James Otis, Samuel Adams, Lord North, Crispus Attucks -Charles Townshend because his may contribution of back the to this You need to come Townshend Acts led question after reading morethe of the chapter. colonists to revolt and fight for The resulting independence movement was fueled by established colonial elites, as well as by grassroots movements that included newly mobilized laborers, artisans, and women, and rested on arguments over the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, and the ideas of the Enlightenment. the rights they deserved Defend your answer with specific evidence. Discontent on the Frontier The suspension of New York’s assembly because they defied 2. the Quartering Act James Otis & Samuel Adams 3. tried to fight for the colonists to not be oppressed by the British The Sons/ Daughters of Liberty intimidated and harassed revenue officials for levying these acts of heavy taxes upon them 1. 6. The Crisis Grows, pp 174-183 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Great Britain’s massive debt from the Seven Years’ Renewal of the Conflict… Committees of Correspondence established by Samuel Adams 1772 -Spread liberty ideas & exchange letters of potential British threats -Virginia House of Burguesses organized intercolonial committees 1773 Analysis 6 War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over North American markets, taxes, and political institutions — actions that were supported by some colonists but resisted by others. Explain how Committees of Correspondence and intercolonial committees sharpened the divisions between Britain and the colonies in the early 1770’s. Boston Massacre: In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed. -These committees allowed the colonists to share in their ideals of liberty and search for information on any British activities that may potentially threaten them, further dividing themselves from Britain The Gaspee… -A British customs ship that had caught many smugglers -When it crashed on Rhode Island in 1772, colonists dressed as Indians and destroyed the rest of the boat Boston Tea Party… -Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773 -Group of Boston colonists dressed like Indians, boarded the East India Company’s tea ship, & dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor -Mixed colonial reactions In what way does the Gaspee incident illustrate the overall turning point of 1763? showed that the colonists really were getting tired and angry of all the reproachable things the British government was doing to them Were the Sons of Liberty justified in the Boston Tea Party? Defend your answer with three pieces of evidence. 1. Yes, because Parliament was listening to their cries, it needed to be known how much they disliked all other acts 2. Yes, because they wanted to inspire the other colonists to just flat out rebel and begin fighting for their rights/ freedoms 3. Yes, because the Boston tea Party was meant to show the colonists that they, the Sons of Liberty, were trying to defend liberty there 7 Intolerable Acts and the Philosophical Foundations of the American Revolution, pp 178-193 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Great Britain’s massive debt from the Seven Years’ War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over North American markets, taxes, and political institutions — actions that were supported by some colonists but resisted by others. The resulting independence movement was fueled by established colonial elites, as well as by grassroots movements that included newly mobilized laborers, artisans, and women, and rested on arguments over the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, and the ideas of the Enlightenment. Analysis The Coercive/Intolerable Acts (1774)… -Four acts directed at punishing Boston & Massachusetts: -Port Act closed port of Boston until the destroyed tea was paid for (no trade in or out) Significance of the Intolerable Acts The inotelarble acts were passed in 1770's in response to the Boston Tea Party, where the colonists dumped $10,000 of tea in t...
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