Biological Antrho- Test 1 Notes

Biological Antrho- Test 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Biological...

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1Chapter 1: Biological Anthropology and Evolution $ Anthropology- the science that investigates human biological and cultural variation and evolution $ Culture- behavior that is shared, learned, and socially transmitted $ Biocultural approach- studying humans in terms of interaction between biology and culture in evolutionary adaptation $ Holistic- integrating all aspects of existence in understanding human variation and evolution $ Variation- variation refers to differences among individuals or populations $ Evolution- change in populations of organisms from one generation to the next $ Adaptation- any aspect of biology or behavior that confers some advantage on an individual or population $ What is adaptive for some people may not be adaptive for others $ For example, changes in certain tax laws may be advantageous for certain income groups and disadvantageous for others $ Adaptations are physiological in nature and involve metabolic changes. (When you are too hot, you sweat; sweating is a short-term physiological response that removes excess heat through the process of evaporation. .. Shivering is an adaptive response to cold; the act of shivering increases metabolic rate and provides more heat. .. Darker skin for people near the equator provides protection from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation) $ Two important rules about adaptation $ One, adaptations are often specific to a particular environment $ Second, not all aspects of behavior or biology are adaptive $ Subfields of Anthropology $ Cultural anthropology- deals with variations in cultural behaviors among human populations; look at all aspects of behavior within a society $ Archaeology- focuses on cultural variation in pre-historic populations by analyzing culture’s remains $ Linguistic anthropology- focuses on the nature of human language, the relationship of language to culture, and the languages of nonliterate people $ Biological anthropology- focuses on the biological evolution of humans and human ancestors, the relationship of humans to other organisms, and patterns of biological variation within and among human populations $ Concerned with primate studies; look at the anatomy, behavior, and evolution of other primates as a standard comparison with those aspects of humans $ Fact- a verifiable truth $ Evolution is both a fact and a theory $ Gravity is a fact $ Hypothesis- and explanation of observed facts $ many hypotheses could be generated to explain gravity because it is observable $ The potential must exist for a hypothesis to be rejected $ Theory- a set of hypotheses that have been tested repeatedly and have not been rejected $ Modern evolutionary theory- not static; a dynamic process with new evidence being used to support, clarify, and, most importantly, reject previous ideas $ Pre-Darwinian Thought-
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$ Greek philosophy posits a static, unchanging view of the world $ Carolus Linnaeus $ Swedish naturalist who compiled one of the first classifications of all known living
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Biological Antrho- Test 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Biological...

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