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Week 5: Discussion 2Pathophysiology of Anaphylactic ShockAnaphylactic shock is a possible life-threating allergic reaction with a fast onset time. This type of distributive shock occurs when a person is introduced to an allergen such as food, insect venom, or medications producing copious quantities of immunoglobulin E (IgE) due to a humoral immune response (Brashers, 2017). When allergens bind to IgE, mast cells degranulate,emitting a great quantity of vasoactive and inflammatory cytokines (Brashers, 2017). The release of histamine, tryptase, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and cytokines occur causing an immune and inflammatory response (Reber, Hernandez, & Galli, 2017). Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability are a result of the immune and inflammatory cascade instigating peripheral pooling and tissue swelling (Brashers, 2017). Laryngospasms, bronchospasms, abdominal cramping with diarrhea are caused by extravascular smooth muscle contractions (Brashers, 2017). The speedy occurrence of anaphylactic shock and the life-threatening issues that result from this reaction make prompt recognition and treatment essential (Jacobsen & Gratton, 2011).