Biological Anthro- Test 2 Notes

Biological Anthro- Test 2 Notes - 10/8 - although genetic...

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110/8 - although genetic studies show the Ainu are closely related to their neighbors in East Asia, they have often been classified as “Caucasian” 1st Americans? - Clovis artifacts appear throughout North and South America within 1000 years - It has recently been accepted that Monte Verde…. Mitochondrial DNA: Haplogroup X - rare in all populations and largely absent in Northeast Asia - remember: cranial shape, hair, skin, etc. are phenotype expressions of particular alleles NAGPRA - Native American Graves Production and Reparation Act of 1990 requires agencies that receive federal funding to return Native American cultural items to their respective peoples ABO Blood Type - the ABO blood system is determined by three forms of one allele - the A, B, AB, O phenotypes each offer resistance to different diseases - sickle cell anemia is more common among AA than other populations Natural Selection: Heterozygotes - sickle cell anemia is caused by single mutation - the homozygote can cause a deadly disease; the heterozgote confers protections against malaria - when the heterozygote is selected for… Complex Traits - most aren’t controlled by one gene, but demonstrate continuous variation Evolution of Skin Color - dark skin contains more of the pigment melanin - melanin protects against UV radiation - UV radiation is necessary to catalyze vitamin D - Dark skin protects against • Skin cancer • Sunburn • Folate loss - in higher latitudes, dark skin inhibits the synthesis of vitamin D - thus, light skin is selected for - skin color has changed through time as humans moved into different environments Movement and Interaction - nonselected, neutral traits show evidence of past population dynamics Mongols in Asia- Mongol Empire, founded by Genghis Khan and ruled by his family conquered
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much of Asia in the 13th century AD Hazara in Pakistan - distinctive population in Pakistan who trace their ancestry to Genghis Khan Assortive Mating
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Biological Anthro- Test 2 Notes - 10/8 - although genetic...

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