Psych terms and stuff

Psych terms and stuff - Psych terms and stuff Continuous...

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Psych terms and stuff Continuous reinforcement - a type of learning in which the desired behavior is reinforced each time it occurs Partial reinforcement - a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently Ratio schedule - a schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs Ex: every third or fourth occurrence= reward Paid by piece Leads to a greater responding than interval reinforcement Interval schedule - reinforcement is based on a specific unit of time Ex: hourly wage Fixed schedule - reinforcer is consistently given following a specific number of occurrences or after a specific amount of time Paid at a fixed rate- no matter how many pieces or hours still the same hourly wage Variable schedules - reinforcer is applied at different rates or at different times Ex: when salespeople are paid only when a customer agrees to purchase a product -continuous reinforcement is highly effective for acquiring a behavior Partial reinforcement extinction effect - greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement • Ex: slot machines • the less frequent the reinforcement during training, the greater the resistance to extinction - B.F. Skinner believed that all behavior could be explained by straightforward conditioning principles - animals have a hard time learning behaviors that counter their evolutionary adaptation - conditioning is most effective when the association between the behavioral response and the reinforcement is similar to the built in predisposition of the animal - Gallistel hypothesized that learning consists of specialized mechanisms (rather than universal mechanisms) that solve the adaptive problems faced by animals in their environments - Tolman argued that reinforcement has more impact on performance than on learning Cognitive maps- visual/spatial mental representation of the environment • tested rats in a maze to get to food “goal box” Latent learning- used by Tolman, learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement -Learning can be passed on through cultural transmission Meme- the knowledge transferred within a culture • can spread quickly, unlike natural selection • ex: worldwide use of internet Observational learning- occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to other performing the behavior -Observational studies by Albert Bandura • preschool children were shown a film of an adult playing with a large inflatable doll called bobo • the adults either played quietly with bobo or attacked him violently • the children were allowed to play then and those who watched the adults behave violently towards Bobo were more than 2x as likely to act aggressively towards Bobo Modeling- imitation of behavior through observational learning
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• like the monkeys and washing sand off of potatoes • humans are more likely to model people who are attractive, have high status, and are similar to ourselves
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Psych terms and stuff - Psych terms and stuff Continuous...

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