Chem 155 Chap 1

Chem 155 Chap 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chem 155 Fall...

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Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chem 155 Fall 2007 Goals for CHEM 155: a. Gain an appreciation of chemistry including the relationship to other disciplines and to the universe and to put the topics into historical context 2. Deep understanding of basic chemical principles 3. Prepare for future coursework in Chemistry 4. Improve problem-solving skills. 5. Improve critical-thinking skills. 6. Preparation for career. 1.1 The Study of Chemistry Chemistry – study of matter (materials) and its changes. Everything in the physical universe is either matter or Energy Matter – occupies space – physical “material” of universe [has mass] Energy – ability to do work or transfer heat Matter consists of “particles” Atom – “building blocks” of matter (the letters of a language) Example: H, O, C, Mg Materials of atoms of only one type make up elements Atoms of more than 1 element CAN make up molecules. (The words of a language.) Example: H 2 O, CO, CO 2 Atoms in molecules in FIXED ratios. 1.2 Scientific Method Scientific Method = systematic approach to research
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Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Chem 155 Fall 2007 Everything known in chemistry is the result of experimentation observations = data, quantitative (numerical) or qualitative summary of observations = scientific law (No attempt at explaining why, just what is.) Suggested explanation for a scientific law = hypothesis A hypothesis that survives testing can become theory or model . In practice, science is meandering and messy – lots of experiments needed before a coherent picture emerges; many experiments fail or lead to dead ends. 1.3 Classifications of Matter: The Three Physical States of Matter In terms of particles (Figure 1.2) Gas – molecules or atoms very far apart, moving rapidly, the container entirely filled with the species (3-D) Liquid – molecules or atoms in close proximity, moving, take on shape of vessel. Solid – fixed volume and shape. molecules/atoms – rigid. Classification in terms of Composition (what makes up the substance) See figure 1.5. Pure
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Chem 155 Chap 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chem 155 Fall...

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