A&P Chapter 1.docx - Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy...

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology I. Metabolic Processes Functions of all living things Responsiveness: response to immediate environment; also known as irritability o Ex. Moving away from a painful stimulus o The capacity to make longer-tem adjustments is adaptability (growing fur) Growth: increase in organism size o Proliferation: cell division (growth/addition of cells) o Differentiation (hand-in hand with specialization/maturation): when a cell matures into its specific cell type Reproduction: creation of new generations of similar organisms Movement o Internal: transporting blood, food, or other material within the body o External: moving through the environment Metabolism: sum of chemical rxns = breakdown (catabolic rxn) + buildup (anabolic rxn) o Cells use materials absorbed from the environment for energy Nutrients from food Oxygen o More complex organisms require specialized structures and systems from metabolic processes Respiration: absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells Digestion: breaking down complex foods into simpler compounds that can be absorbed Excretion: eliminating waste products generated by metabolic products II. Anatomy VS. Physiology Anatomy Means “cutting open” Study of internal/external structure and relationship between body parts Gross Anatomy (macroscopic anatomy = studies structures with unaided eyes) o Surface anatomy: study of general form and superficial markings o Regional anatomy: study of all the superficial and internal features of a specific region of the body o Systemic anatomy: study of the structure of major organ systems Microscopic Anatomy (studies structures that cannot be seen by the eye) o Cytology: study of internal structure of individual cells o Histology: study of tissues, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions Physiology Study of how organisms carry out functions Human Physiology o Cell physiology: functions of living cells (chemical/molecular levels included) o Special physiology: physiology of specific organs o
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