February 20 2008 - Political Unity of Muslim world will be...

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February 20, 2008 Political Unity of Muslim world will be history if abassids take power. Ummayyad rule spain. Abbasid Caliph rules everything east by that. Political fragmentation will be rule of the day. Ruling vast empire is impossible. Basically beause of religious distances. Economic problems. Kharijee revolts. Competing political ambitions gave rise to political fragmentation. Usually, local governors who were mostly military commanders would declare independence and set up semi-autonomous states. They would create their own dynasty (hereditary), and would recognize Abbasid Caliph nominally. But rulers, heads of dynasty, would rule territories they have control over. Abbasid Caliph should have political power, after 10 th century, he is reduced to nominal role, Caliph of the Umma, a symbolic nominal head of ummamah. Compared to remnants of monarchies of today (England). By 945, political fragmentation is evident. Shi3a (Buyids – 934-1055 ) dynasty will conquer Baghdad. Spain and the maghrib (North Africa)- Umayyad 1031 Aghlabids 800-909 Almoravids 1050-1150 Almohads 1150-1250 Egypt Fatimids 960=1171 (established 906), (Al-Qahira 970; Al-azhar 988) Ayyubids 1171-1250 (Saladin) Other Areas: Samanids 819-999 Hamdanids 905-1004 Ghaznavids 975-1040 (1000 conquer India-until 1187) Buyids- 934-1055 Seljuks 1040-1250 (madrasa) Fatimids- Shi3a. . Ismaeeli (seveners) Shi3a. The ones who recognized the first 7 emams. Name is Fatimids because they claim descendents from Ali and Fatima. It was their aim to overthrow the Abbasids and restore the error of the 7 th century. They are the ones who built Cairo (al Qahira) as a rival to Baghdad. And they built an important learning institution: Al-Azhar. Ayyoubis sunni, origin is Kurdish/Turkish. In Egypt they are important.
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Mamluks, descendents from abbasid slave army that took the nile. They have their hold on Egypt for a while. Samanids- Persian, Sunni, actually a family sent by Abbasids to rule eastern part of Iran Hamdanids- Arab Shii3a from northern Iraqi Area and Syria. Ghaznavids- Turkish origin. Regarded themselves of the one restoring sunnism. Reason why islam was carried into India and Pakistan Buyids- Persian, Twelver shii3is. Recognized first twelve emams Seljuks- Turkish. Central asian region. Conquer lands of Moslem empire, become Muslim theselves. Highly persianized. Created the synthesis of Turko-persian culture.
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February 20 2008 - Political Unity of Muslim world will be...

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