community test 3.docx - Chapter 11 Increased risk for...

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Chapter 11 Increased risk for adverse health consequences with at risk use of: o Tobacco. o Alcohol. o Licit and Illicit drugs. o Nonmedical use of prescription psychoactive drugs. Harm associated with substance use o Low risk: Use that does not increase risk (includes abstinence) o At-risk: any use that places the person at risk for physical or psychological social harm that does not meet the criteria for a substance use disorder. o Substance use disorder (SUD): meets the diagnostic criteria for a SUD. Substance use of any kind during pregnancy or under the legal age is viewed as at- risk use. At-risk substance use increases risk at the community level for: o Motor vehicle crashes. o Crime. o Environmental pollution. o Increased burden of disease. Global focus o Reducing harm at a population level through prevention o Early treatment o Decriminalization of substance use o Broader policy initiatives Linked to adverse health consequences Globally alcohol and tobacco among top ten risk factors for mortality Alcohol most prevalent Cannabis is the next most used substance after tobacco and alcohol Measurement and Surveillance o All substances have a classification of use that reflects risk Consumption data for substance use should include o Quantity o Frequency o Duration o Pattern Important to define at the individual and population level o National surveillance surveys on substance abuse o Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) o National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) o National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Models for treatment and prevention
o Institute of Medicine Model o Three levels of prevention Universal level =identified populations at risk Selective level =specific subgroups at a higher risk Age, gender, reproductive status, hx of abuse Indicated level =subgroups at the highest risk Experimenting, to delay initial use or severity Alcohol use o Third leading risk factor of poor health o Adverse health consequences Motor vehicle crashes Drowning Alcohol poisoning Increase of breast cancer o Associated with more than 200 diseases and injuries o Alcohol and vulnerable populations Pregnancy Fetal alcohol syndrome Older adults Organ damage Falls Interaction with prescriptive drugs Tobacco use o 443,000 premature deaths each year attributable to smoking o Accounts for one out of every five deaths o Public health issue for nonsmokers Secondhand smoke exposure The smoke produced from the end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe The smoke exhaled by the smoker Referred to as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) Psychoactive Drug Use o The consequences of drug use vary based on the pharmacokinetics of the drug used.

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