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ISLAM: RELIGION AND CULTURE MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE TERMS, NAMES, CONCEPTS Abbasids - the 2 nd of the 2 great Muslim caliphates of the Arab Empire overthrew the Umayyad caliphs; created in 750 and flourished for 2 centuries power declined with the rise of the Turkish army, the mamluks rule was ended in 1258 by the Mongols Abdullah Abu Bakr - an early convert to Islam and a senior companion of Muhammad; became the first Muslim ruler (632-634) after Muhammad’s death; regarded in Sunni Islam as the first of the Rashidun caliphs Consolidated the Muslim state Fought Ridda wars against rebelling Arab tribes to establish rule of law and peace over all of Ara- bia Conquered Syria and Iraq Abu Sufyan - a leader of the Quraysh of Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad in 624 called for help from the Quraysh and resulted in the Battle of Badr, which ended with Muslim victory, and after which he became the leader of Mecca lead the Battle of Uhud (625) and the Battle of the Trench (627) against Medina made peace with Muhammad with the Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628), allowing Muslims to make pil- grimage to the Ka’aba converted to Islam when Mecca was conquered by Muhammad’s army Abu Talib - head of the clan of Banu Hashim Married to Fatima Uncle of Muhammad Raised and supported Muhammad when he was a young man Ali’s father Adam and Hawwa - the Muslim story of Adam and Eve Adhan - the Islamic call to prayer Recited by the muezzin Called out from a mosque 5 times a day summoning Muslims for “fard salah” (mandatory prayers) Ahl al-Bayt - phrase meaning People of the House Refers to the household of Muhammad Ahl al-Kitab - “People of the Book” In Islamic thought, Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians who are possessors of divine books, as distin- guished from those whose religions are not based on divine revelations Muhammad gave them many privileges that are not extended to heathens such as: Freedom of worship Protection from Muslims Aisha - a wife of Muhammad Quoted as the source for many hadith Differing portrayals of her in Shi’i versions of Islamic history Role in the First Fitna (first Islamic civil war) at the head of an army against Ali in the Battle of Bassorah Favorite wife of Muhammad Al-Amin Al-Andalus - the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims between 711-1492 Al-Azhar - an Egyptian university connected to the mosque of the same name in Old Cairo
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Mosque was built in 2 years from 969 Became a Sunni school towards the end of the Middle Ages Al-Farabi Ali - the last of the Rashidun caliphs Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad Revered by Sunnis as the fourth and final Rashidun caliph Revered by Shi’is as the first infallible Imam and the rightful successor to Muhammad Father was Abu Talib The first convert to Islam Encountered defiance and civil war during his reign Assassinated by a Khawarij while praying in the mosque of Kufa
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