alcohol lecture1 - Alcohol Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol...

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Alcohol
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Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol (ethyl alcohol): t he product of fermentation of natural sugars and/or distillation of the fermented products a psychoactive drug a CNS _Depressant___________ the second most widely used and abused of all psychoactive drugs addictive a social lubricant Why?
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Alcohol: It is a Drug Why many people view alcohol as a non- drug? It is Legal____________ Large distribution and sales Long history of use Advertising & media promote drinking as normal
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How much is “one drink”? 1 five-ounce glass of Wine 5 x 0.12 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce Beer___ 12 x 0.045 = 0.54 oz alcohol 1 1.5-ounce shot of 80-proof Liquor_ 1.5 x 0.40 = 0.60 oz alcohol 1 twelve-ounce bottle of Wine cooler___ 12 x 0.05 = 0.60 oz alcohol
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Brief History of Alcohol Fermented honey _ : first alcoholic beverage – 8000 B.C. Beer: first brewery – _Egypt__ in 3700 B.C. Wine_ : first records – territory of modern Iran 5400 B.C. 1830_: the peak drinking period th century Temperance movement (1830–1850) Prohibition era (1920–1933) Ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment (1919) Alcohol was outlawed (January 1920) In 1933 the 21st Amendment repealed prohibition Increase in popularity
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Alcohol Today An enormous business today: - $ 116 Billion _ /year on purchase of alcohol in the US - $ 1.42 Billion _ /year spent on advertising Beer 88% of the overall alcoholic beverage market Alcohol consumption ↓ since late 1970s 20_ % of population – 80 % of alcohol supply 2001 survey of drinking habits of the college students: - 44% binge drinking 2 weeks prior -common report of people required to complete alcohol assessments – I drink equally or less than my social network - 20% reported abstinence
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Prevalence At least _5% of Americans are alcoholic, and the estimate is that the number is closer to somewhere between 5-10% of the adult population Alcoholism plays a major role in the following causes of death: accidents, homicide, suicide, and alcoholic cirrhosis Of the 160 million Americans who are old enough to drink legally, _112 million do so. Comorbidity 30-50% of alcoholics meet criteria for major depression 33% of alcoholics have a coexisting anxiety disorder 36% of alcoholics are also addicted to other drugs
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Pharmacodynamics small molecule highly soluble in water & moderately soluble in fat easily absorbed through gastrointesinal tract (does not need digestion)
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Pharmacodynamics It is difficult, if not impossible to identify the mechanism of the action of alcohol due to its wide variety of behavioral and neurochemical effects. In the past, it was believed that alcohol was a general anesthetic and depressant by dissolving the cell
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 315 taught by Professor Armstrong during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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alcohol lecture1 - Alcohol Alcohol: What is it? Alcohol...

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