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Shirley Lin— Article 14 Immigration PatternsIn the article “Immigration Patterns: The Transition Process”, M. June Allard gives an account of the difficulties that immigrants face in American law and society, the repercussions of enforcing immigrant policies, and the difference perspectives that natives may have on immigration. For the most part, countries across the world welcome immigration because they see as a valuable source of human capital. Study abroad students and permanent immigrants alike are generally valued due to the skills, talents, and innovativeness they bring particularly in the STEM fields. Before 9/11, immigration to the U.S. was booming.Special U.S. waivers and visas benefited many immigrants who wanted to seek the opportunities in America. However, heavy restrictions and policy changes were placed onimmigration after 9/11 that lead to many negative ramifications. There was a severe decline in start-up companies, a severe shortage of skilled labor, hostile environments, and a brain drain. Many study abroad students in America were forced to leave and take their skills and talents elsewhere.There are three categories of residents besides U.S. citizens- naturalized citizens, legal permanent residents, and undocumented immigrants. Naturalized citizens are entitled to almost all the rights and privileges of native citizens. Permanent residents holdgreen cards and are eligible for the naturalization process. Unlike naturalized citizens, they cannot vote or hold government office positions. Lastly, undocumented immigrants have little to no rights including the denial of welfare, food stamps, and Medicaid among many other social services. While there are laws that protect undocumented immigrants on paper, the reality is that the government often violates those laws.