Chapter 10.ppt - The loudest noise ever recorded was the...

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The loudest noise ever recorded was the sound associated with the eruption of the Krakatoa volcano in 1883... The sound was audible over 3,000 miles away
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 2 Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 3 Liquids and Solids They are incompressible (condensed state) Their density doesn’t change with temperature These similarities are due to the molecules being close together in solids and liquids; far apart in gases What holds them close together? intermolecular forces
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 4 Intermolecular Forces Forces between (rather than within) molecules dipole-dipole attraction : molecules with dipoles orient themselves so that “+” and ” ends of the dipoles are close to each other hydrogen bonds : dipole-dipole attraction in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom ( N, O, F )
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 5 More on Hydrogen Bonding… H-bonding only occurs if hydrogen is chemically bonded (intramolecular) to N, O, or F Example: CH 2 O versus CH 3 OH O C H H ·· ·· O C H H ·· H ·· H
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 6 Dipole-Dipole Forces
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 7 London Dispersion Forces relatively weak forces that exist among noble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules (Ar, C 8 H 18 ) Electrons are not evenly distributed at every instant in time instantaneous dipole Induces a dipole in the atom next to it Induced dipole—induced dipole interaction
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 8 London Dispersion Forces the ease with which electron “cloud” of an atom can be induced into a dipole is called polarizability More electrons, more polarizable Bigger molecules, higher melting and boiling points (see Table 10.2) Also called Van der Waal’s forces
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 9 Properties of a Liquid-Surface Tension Surface Tension : The resistance to an increase in its surface area ( polar molecules )
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 10 Properties of a Liquid-Capillary Action Capillary Action : Spontaneous rising of a
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