Chapter 9.ppt - A polar bears skin is actually black and...

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A polar bear’s skin is actually black and the fur is transparent
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 2 Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 3 The Localized Electron Model Draw the Lewis structure(s) Determine the arrangement of electron pairs (VSEPR model). Specify the hybridization.
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 4 Hybridization The mixing of atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding. The atoms are responding as needed to give the minimum energy for the molecule.
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 5 Weakness of Atomic Orbitals… …to explain molecular geometry In methane, CH 4 , the shape is tetrahedral The valence electrons of carbon should be two in s , and two in p The p orbitals would have to be at right angles. The atomic orbitals change when making a molecule
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 6 Methane Atomic Orbitals
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AP Chemistry Abigail Giordano 7 sp 3 Hybridization We blend the one s and three p orbitals of the valence electrons and end up with the tetrahedral geometry sp 3 hybridization has tetrahedral geometry
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