Addictions Mid-Term Review.docx

Addictions Mid-Term Review.docx - Addictions Midterm Ch 1-5...

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Addictions Midterm Ch. 1-5, 9 Chapter 1: Substance Use Disorder and Addiction (Kim Eickholt) Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. Neurons a) Communicate through a series of circuits b) 4 parts: (CADS) Cell body, Axon, Dendrite, Synapse c) 3 functions: inhibition, excitation, neuromodulation d) Trail of communication: i) message is received by D ii) input information is received by nucleus in C iii) message is transmitted down A iv) message is released from S v) message goes to the D of another neuron body Neurons & substance use disorder (SUD) · many receptors and neurotransmitter systems are involved with SUDs and addiction 2) Gilia a) supporting cells of the CNS b) outnumber neurons 10:1 c) holds neurons together d) some regulate neurotransmission e) involved in reuptake process for excitatory neurotransmitters 3) Neurotransmitters a) form language that neurons communicate with b) passed between neurons in the S c) Major ones relevant to SUDs: Neurotransmitter Function Drug Dopamine Pleasure, reward, movement, attention, memory ALL Serotonin Mood, sleep, sexual desire, appetite Ecstasy, LSD, coke Norepinephrine Sensory process., movement, sleep, mood, memory, anxiety Coke, meth, amphetamine Endo Opioids Analgesia, sedation, body functions, mood Heroin, morphine, oxy
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Acetylcholine Memory, arousal, attention, mood Nicotine Endo Cannabinoids Movement, cognition, memory Marijuana Glutamine Increased neuron activity, learning, cognition, memory Ketamine, Phencyclidine, alcohol GABA Slowed neuron activity, anxiety, memory, anesthesia Sedatives, tranquilizer, alcohol Brain areas and SUDs 1) Brain Stem a) hindbrain: cerebellum, pons, medulla i) motor control, language, attention, fear, pleasure ii) most interior, primitive area b) SUD i) ventral tegmental area (VTA) (1) reward circuit (2) projects to prefrontal cortex (PFC) ii) substantia nigra (SN) (1) seeking and learning iii) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) (1) learning, memory, affect 2) Basal Ganglia a) between brainstem and cortex b) nucleus accumbens (NAc) i) cognitive processes: motivation, pleasure, reward, reinforcement c) amygdala i) memory, decision making, emotional processes (memories) 3) Cortex a) outermost advanced area of brain b) anterior cingulate cortex i) reward anticipation, empath, emotion, impulse c) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex i) executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, planning (relevant when there are problems with attention and motivation) ii) cost/benefit analysis of decisions d) orbitofrontal cortex i) linking affect to reinforcement, decision making e) insular cortex i) exposure to substance-related triggers, negative emotion expectancy f) hippocampus i) integration of emotion and memory Dopamine Pathways (* involved in SUD & addiction)
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1) Mesolimbic* a) runs between VTA to the NAc i) cells project to other areas including: amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, etc.
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  • Fall '18
  • Dr. Burdenski
  • suds

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