Lecture 2.docx - Lecture 2 Visual culture of that time...

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Lecture 2 Visual culture of that time Revolution- societal powers how are they being altered; the ways of life how are they changed? Act of writing became a revolutionary component in communicationPrinting is the second revolution- increase accessibility “Medium is the message”-The way in which the information is conveyed is more impactful than the actual meaning of the message (McLuhan) Printing has more authority Invention of writing began in the middle east Cuneiform, 1700 -1100 BCE hieroglyph in China (technology of writing takes shape)> paper making in China Remove ethnocentric view when understanding the history of printing Symbols of alphabet were abstracted to make it easier to use The way we shape communicationSymbolic convention Practicality 400 CE codex box1100 CE agricultural innovations shift to towns Gutenberg was able to mechanize the printing process but without the Chinese foundation this would not have been possible Silk road proved highly important to the transmission of information/ ideasMigration of printing technology Medieval period Religious, superstitious thinking Decline in literacy Cynicism Lecture 3Johannes Gutenberg (1394-1468)Contributed to the Production and distribution of text Xylography brought typography from China to Europe China had a form of democracy no caste system, success based on merit To claim that Greece or Europe are the first of democracy is false Printing ^ distribution of books removed the need for “scriptorians” in the church Reformation in Religion/ literacy increased Life revolved around religion as a dominant world view
Sense of national identity, broader understanding of society Renaissance Period (1550-1750) Birth of Renaissance in Italy Enlightenment Humanism Mechanization of type woodblock graphics Scientific and empiricism world view Albercht Pfister -moveable type Humanism equality among men “humanist miniscule” Nicolas Jenson Aldus Manutius (1449-1515) first to produce something in roman italic as a means of conserving spaceOctavio smaller size of books making them more accessibleGeoffroy Tory Engraver from Italy Added accents to typographyAlbrecht Durer Martin Luther (1577)Purchase of indulgences Nailing 95 theses to door of all saint churches challenging the church exposing their exploitation William Caslan John Baskerville Bridge the gap between old style and modern style Francois Ambroise Didot Giambattistsa Bodoni
Industrial Revolution Increase trade, self-determination Created change in society and economy Rising merchant class> strong middle classPeriod of capitalism*Consumer demand for products > factory advertising, postersWoodblock type and the rudder Lower class conditions became harsher Commodity takes on a spirit of their own James Watt Steam Engine MarxFalse consciousness Grammar of ornamental

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