Review sheet

Review sheet - Research Methods 4 main goals of scientific...

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Research Methods 13/02/2008 20:22:00 4 main goals of scientific method 1.) Description 2.) Prediction 3.) Casual Control 4.) Explanation Types of Studies 1.) Descriptive Research Methods o case studies- A research method that involves the intensive  examination of one person  o naturalistic observation- A passive descriptive study in which observers  do not change or alter ongoing behavior o Surveys-  o Correlational method- examines how variables are naturally related in  the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them 2.) Experimental Methods Bias- systematic (non-random) error Sampling bias Expectancy bias- systematic error resulting from: o Observer or experimenter expectancies o Subject or research respondent expectancies Controlling bias o Blind observer and experimenter Observational Techniques- Unique approaches through objective non-self-report  measurements
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Researchers can measure: o Reaction time o Response accuracy o Stimulus judgments Body and brain activity can be directly measured o MRI o PET Correlational Designs examine how variables are related o A correlation reflects the association between two variables, expressed  as a coefficient of association ® which varies from +1 to -1 o A correlation can be weak or strong Problems with inferences of causation from Correlational data o Directionality problem-Does depressed mood lead to impaired sleep or  does impaired sleep lead to depressed mood? o Third variable problem- Family conflicts could affect the two other  variables o Correlational data can suggest causes but are insufficient grounds for  casual inference How is experiment different from descriptive research? o An experiment attempts to establish cause\test casual theories o An experiment involves manipulating conditions (not just describing) Core features of experimental methods: o Independent variables- experimenter is manipulating o Dependent variables- outcome measure o Random sampling from representative populations o Random assignment to conditions or treatments o Efforts to “control” or minimize extraneous/ irrelevant factors. o
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Biological Psychology: The Nervous System and  Neruotransmitter processes 13/02/2008 20:22:00 The machinery of the mind underlies psychological realities
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Overview: How does the nervous system operate? Neurons are specialized for communication Action potentials cause neuronal communication Changes in electrical potential lead to action Action potentials spread along the axon Neurotransmitters bind to receptors across the synapse Neurons Neurons collect, integrate and transmit electrochemical information
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Review sheet - Research Methods 4 main goals of scientific...

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