Exam2 Review sheet

Exam2 Review sheet - Learning & Reward...

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Unformatted text preview: Learning & Reward 10/03/2008 19:23:00 History of Learning Thorndike o The Law of Effect o consequences of behavior determine its survival Pavlov/Watson o associative learning and classical conditioning o Watson built on Pavlovs work with Behaviorism Theory Watsons behaviorism rejected the Freudian and structuralist focus on mental events and verbal reports Behavior determined by external forces Philosophy that psychology should be about the study of what can be seen and observed Stimuli and Responses are observable and objective and should be the sole object of study in psychology Skinner o contingencies of reinforcement o Operant Conditioning Social Learning Theory (Bandura) o S-O-R model dominates O= Organismic events: internal, cognitive, mental events with neurobiological underpinnings o Social Learning Theory rests on S-O-R conceptualizations Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning What are the basic concepts of classical conditioning? o Associative Learning- in time neutral stimulus can produce reflexive behavior o Stimulus Substitution- Stimuli are associated and one comes to substitute for another How is operant conditioning different from classical conditioning? o Classical Conditioning Organism is passive Responses are reflexes Responses are elicited Reinforcement is unrelated to learning the association o Operant Conditioning Organism is active Responses are voluntary Responses are emitted Reinforcement is contingent on desired response Brain Differences o CC involving fear relies on the amygdala o OC involves the dopamine based reward system centered in the nucleus accumbens Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is paired repeatedly, with temporal contiguity, with Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Over trials, CS comes to automatically elicit a response (Conditioned Response (CR)) that closely resembles the UCR CR is not identical to the UR reflex o It is a learned automatic associative response with similar form to UR Before conditioning o US UR After conditioning o CS CR (no longer need US to get response) o Examples of Classical Conditioning Salivating in response to food Sexual interests Drug overdoses Cocaine and money pairing Mowers Two Factor Theory of Avoidance Learning Classical Conditioning o Fear is learned through classical conditioning: previously neutral stimuli acquire their fear-inducing properties via stimulus substitution, generalization and discrimination Operant Conditioning o Avoidance learning The individual learns a response to get away from CS...
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Exam2 Review sheet - Learning & Reward...

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