Language, Thought, and IntelligenceCognition refers to the mental processes -- perception, memory, thought, and language - -that together produce knowledge. LanguageLanguage – BasicsoPhonemesoPhonological RulesoMorphemesoMorphological RulesoSyntactical RulesMeaningoDeep StructureoSurface StructureLanguage DevelopmentoDistinguishing speech soundsoFirst words – 10 to 12 monthsoFast mappingoTelegraphic speech – 24 monthsoGrammatical rulesHow Do We Learn Language?oBehaviorist ExplanationsoNativist TheoriesoInteractionist TheoriesThinkingoInformation in memory is manipulated and transformed through thinking. oWhen we think we often use concepts. Concept FormationoArtificial concepts - formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set ofrules, i.e., fruitoNatural concepts - casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise setof properties, automobilesHow do we know what does and does fit a given concept?oPositive and Negative InstancesoSystematic or Formal ApproachesoPrototypes — an example that embodies the most common and typical features of the concept.oExemplarsReasoningoInductive - from specific to generaloDeductive - from general to specificProblem SolvingoTrial and error - simpliest strategy, inefficient
oAlgorithms - step by step procedure that guarantees a solutionoHeuristics - mental shortcuts or rules of thumbAnalogies - using an old solution for a new problemoInsight -a ha!Errors in Problem SolvingImpediments to problem solving: Mental stumbling blocksSometimes the difficulty in problem solving lies not with the problem but with ourselves. oFunctional fixedness – the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems. oMental set – we get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving, continuing to use the same old method even though another approach might be better. Luchin’s Water Jug ProblemReplication of Wasson (1960)oWhat rule was used to generate the following sequence?Confirmation BiasoThe tendency to look only for evidence that will verify our beliefsBelief PerseveranceoWhat happens when we confront information that plainly contradicts our beliefs?Do we revise our views as logic would dictate?No, we cling to our discredited beliefsRepresentative HeuristicoThe tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself. oWhen we have to decide whether something belongs in category A or category B, we should consider three questions: How closely does it resemble the items in category A? How closely does it resemble the items in category B?