Cognition.docx - Language Thought and Intelligence...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 7 pages.

Language, Thought, and Intelligence Cognition refers to the mental processes -- perception, memory, thought, and language - -that together produce knowledge. Language Language – Basics o Phonemes o Phonological Rules o Morphemes o Morphological Rules o Syntactical Rules Meaning o Deep Structure o Surface Structure Language Development o Distinguishing speech sounds o First words – 10 to 12 months o Fast mapping o Telegraphic speech – 24 months o Grammatical rules How Do We Learn Language? o Behaviorist Explanations o Nativist Theories o Interactionist Theories Thinking o Information in memory is manipulated and transformed through thinking. o When we think we often use concepts. Concept Formation o Artificial concepts - formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules, i.e., fruit o Natural concepts - casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties, automobiles How do we know what does and does fit a given concept? o Positive and Negative Instances o Systematic or Formal Approaches o Prototypes — an example that embodies the most common and typical features of the concept. o Exemplars Reasoning o Inductive - from specific to general o Deductive - from general to specific Problem Solving o Trial and error - simpliest strategy, inefficient
o Algorithms - step by step procedure that guarantees a solution o Heuristics - mental shortcuts or rules of thumb Analogies - using an old solution for a new problem o Insight -a ha! Errors in Problem Solving Impediments to problem solving: Mental stumbling blocks Sometimes the difficulty in problem solving lies not with the problem but with ourselves. o Functional fixedness – the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems. o Mental set – we get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving, continuing to use the same old method even though another approach might be better. Luchin’s Water Jug Problem Replication of Wasson (1960) o What rule was used to generate the following sequence? Confirmation Bias o The tendency to look only for evidence that will verify our beliefs Belief Perseverance o What happens when we confront information that plainly contradicts our beliefs? Do we revise our views as logic would dictate? No, we cling to our discredited beliefs Representative Heuristic o The tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself. o When we have to decide whether something belongs in category A or category B, we should consider three questions: How closely does it resemble the items in category A? How closely does it resemble the items in category B?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture