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Running HEAD: Diabetes 1Diabetes and Drug TreatmentsStudentWalden UniversityNURS 6521N Advance PharmacologyOctober 8, 2018
2DiabetesDiabetes is a disease condition characterized by impaired insulin secretion leading to hyperglycemia. According to Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold (2017), four major classifications of diabetes mellitus (DM) have been defined. These are types 1 and 2, gestational diabetes and diabetes in children called juvenile diabetes (Laureate Education Inc. 2012). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018) estimate that about 30.3 million Americans of all ages have diabetes. Out of the 30.3 million with DM, type 1 accounts for only 5-10% of cases while type 2 DM accounts for 90-95% (CDC, 2018). The purpose of this paper isto describe the difference between types 1 and 2 DM, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. The paper will also describe one type of drug used in treating type 2 DM as well as dietary considerations related to treatment, and short and long term impact of type 2 DM on patients.Types of DiabetesAccording to McCance & Huerta (2014), type 1 DM is characterized by reduced or absent insulin production possibly triggered by auto immune reactions. In type 1 DM, the insulinsecreting cells or the pancreatic beta cells are destroyed and this destruction occurs over months and years. Eventually, islet cells are rendered incapable of producing enough insulin for control of plasma glucose levels (Laureate education, 2012). Most people that have type 1 DM need daily insulin shots. Type 2 DM is due to insulin resistance. The patient develops resistance to insulin which leads to inability to suppress hepatic glucose production resulting in hyperglycemia (McCance, & Huerta, 2014). Laureate education (2012) reports that type 1 DM is
3the most common type of diabetes seen in children and type 2 previously rare in children has been increasing due to childhood obesity. Gestational diabetes (GD) is diabetes that begins in pregnancy (McCance, & Huerta, 2014). Gestational diabetes occurs in 5% to 10% of all pregnancies but higher rates may be found in certain ethnic groups, such as American Indians, Mexican- American, and Pacific Islanders (McCance, & Huerta, 2014). Women with GD have