Running head: CRIMINOLOGY 1 Comparative and International Policing in Austria Name Institutional Affiliation
CRIMINOLOGY 2 Comparative and International Policing in Austria The concept of policing refers to activities that are carried out by police officers in order to maintain law and order. The activities are aimed at ensuring that citizens are treated with fairness on legal issues in their public lives. International policing refers to activities related to jurisdictions of several countries (Lemieux, 2013). Furthermore, international policing is described to be distinguished in several forms such as involvement with certain societal developments, which tend to extend across different nations and affect police reorganizations. Transitional operations also encourage policing across the boundaries of different countries. In addition, police cooperation also tends to encourage collaborations of police from different countries (Hufnagel, 2016). On the other hand, the concept of comparative policing refers to similarities and differences in the police force. Study of comparative and international criminal justice system creates awareness in criminal law (Ebbe, 2013). The paper seeks to describe the concept of comparative and international policing, transitional crime and justice in Austria. The concept of International Policing International policing is described to have been formed for political objectives. The system later transformed to criminal enforcement tasks. During the initial formulation period, international policing was mainly aimed at counteracting factions that opposed conservative governments. For example, German states police union was established in order to gather intelligence regarding suspected political groups and individuals. The union was described to engage in organizing meetings at a regular schedule. Police heads of member states including Austria were responsible for instituting exchange of international information. However, the cooperation is described to have experienced limitation on the international platform across countries that spoke German.
CRIMINOLOGY 3 Police institutions later were described to have initiated a bureaucratic process of developing expertise on investigations. Thus, their work transformed away from a dictatorial form of governments towards task enforcements. Increased bureaucratization in industrialized nations gave rise to international police cooperation in order to expand criminal enforcement tasks. Thus, the system began to engage in solving international crimes thereby moving away from political policing. Thus, Police cooperation promotes border security (Zureik & Salter, 2013). Importance of International Policing Police Cooperation International police were developed to offer cooperation to member countries thereby increasing resources to solve crimes such as terrorist attacks (Fooner, 2013). However, during the initial stages of formulation, the system experience ineffectiveness resulting from technological systems in communication and transport sectors. The sectors were described to
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