Micro Study Guide (1).docx - Ch 1 1 Antoni van Leeuwenhoeks...

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Ch. 1 1. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek’s and Semmelweis findings. a. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek developed simple microscope and began viewing pond water where he saw algae, protozoa, and fungi. He called then animacules, later changed to microorganisms. b. Semmelweis introduced handwashing in medical settings, reducing the mortality from puerperal fever. 2. Pasteur’s experiments a. Began with the swan neck experiment to study the idea of spontaneous generation and led to the formation of the scientific method. b. Later, vintners came to Pasteur about spoiled wine. Experiments to find how fermentation occurs, in presence of yeast. Led to the development of pasteurization-process of heating liquids just enough to kill most bacteria. Began the field of industrial microbiology- intentional use of microbes for manufacturing products c. Germ Theory of Disease- Hypothesis formulated by Pasteur in 1857 that microorganisms are responsible for disease. 3. Koch’s experiments a. Studied disease causation, took blood from disease infected animals and smeared on potato to view microorganism growth b. Results: Simple staining techniques, First photomicrograph of bacteria, First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue, Techniques for estimating CFU/ml, Use of steam to sterilize media, Use of Petri dishes, Techniques to transfer bacteria, Bacteria as distinct species c. Koch’s Postulates: i. The suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts. ii. The agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. iii. When the agent is introduced to a healthy, susceptible host, the host should get the disease. iv. The same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host. 4. The general characteristics of bacteria, archaea, virus, protozoa, fungus, algae Bacteria Prokaryotic (lack nuclei) Much smaller than eukaryotes
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Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture Reproduce asexually Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan; some lack cell walls Archaea Prokaryotic (lack nuclei) Much smaller than eukaryotes Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture; some have been isolated from extreme environments Reproduce asexually Archaeal cell walls are composed of polymers other than peptidoglycan Virus Protozoa Single-celled eukaryotes Similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure Live freely in water; some live in animal hosts Asexual (most) and sexual reproduction Most are capable of locomotion by -Pseudopods – cell extensions that flow in direction of travel -Cilia – numerous short protrusions that propel organisms through environment -Flagella – extensions of a cell that are fewer, longer, and more whiplike than cilia Fungus Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nucleus) Obtain food from other organisms Possess cell walls Include -Molds – multicellular; grow as long filaments; reproduce by sexual and asexual spores -Yeasts – unicellular; reproduce asexually by budding; some produce sexual spores Algae Unicellular or multicellular Photosynthetic Simple reproductive structures
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