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Microbiology Chapter 19 Sty- infection of the hair follicle at the eyelid base Folliculitis- infection of the hair follicle often called a pimple Most commonly caused by staphylococcus Two types: aureus (more virulence factors) and epidermis (rarely causes disease) Treated with Dicloxacillin (semisynthetic penicillin) is the drug of choice because s. aureus has beta lactum resistance OR Vancomycin is used to treat resistant strains Erysipelas- infection spreads to the lymph nodes (deeper than dermis) Most cases are caused by S. aureus Some cases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Gram-positive coccus, arranged in chains Usually in elderly Treated with penicillin Impetigo (pyoderma)- red patches form on the face and limbs Usually in infants/kids Most cases are caused by S. aureus or S. pyogenes Treated with oral and topical antimicrobials and careful cleaning of infected areas Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)- Skin becomes red and wrinkled and forms blisters and outer epidermis peels off in sheets Caused by S. aureus primarily in infants Treated by administration of antimicrobial drugs Necrotizing fasciitis caused by S. pyogenes 1
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Treat with clindamycin and penicillin Invasion of tissues Cat scratch disease Fever, malaise, localized swelling at infection site Caused by Bartonella henselae (Gram-negative bacillus) Endotoxin primarily virulence factor Transmitted by cat bites or scratches and by blood-sucking arthropods Diagnosed with serological testing Treated with antimicrobials Herpes simplex diseases Slow-spreading skin lesions Spread between mucous membranes of mouth and genitals Chemotherapeutic drugs help control the disease but do not cure it HSV1= oral and HSV2= genital 2
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Chicken pox and shigellosis Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both diseases Infection spreads from the respiratory tract to the skin via blood and lymph Chickenpox is usually a mild disease Virus becomes latent in nerve ganglia Reactivated VZV causes shingles Chickenpox occurs mostly in children ~20% of people who have had chickenpox develop shingles Vaccine available against chickenpox Skin wart Benign epithelial growths on the skin or mucous membranes 3
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Various papillomaviruses cause warts most warts are harmless Papillomaviruses may precipitate some cancers Erythema infectiosum Also referred to as fifth disease Caused by B19 virus Respiratory disease that manifests as a rash Adults may also develop anemia and joint pain Malassezia furfur- Normal inhabitant of human skin Superficial mycoses (fungal infection) Pityriasis versicolor- patches of scaly skin Treated with topical or oral drugs Sporotrichosis- aka Rose Gardner’s Disease Caused by Sporothrix schenckii Resides in the soil Fixed sporotrichosis remains localized
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