October 7, 2015Neetika RastogiShortAP US HIS I: 6 Chapter 2: The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire, 1607-1754❖Every colony received its identity and its authority to operate by means of a charter, describing in general terms the relationship that was supposed to exist between the colony and the crown. ➢Corporate - operated by joint-stock companies➢Royal - under the direct rule and authority of the king’s government➢Proprietary - under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the kingA.) Early English Settlements❖Reasons why England was able to colonize/ why settlers wanted to come to the New World:➢The defeating of the Spanish Armada gained England a reputation of a major naval power.➢England’s population grew, while its economy depressed - poor and landless people searched for more opportunities.➢Joint-stock companies allowed a pool of investors to share the risk of the enterprise of founding colonies.1.Jamestown: Early Problemsa.It’s location in a swampy area resulted in outbreaks of dysentery and malaria.b.Settlers were either unaccustomed to physical work, or were too invested in their own gold-seeking endeavors to hunt or farm.c.When conflict erupted with natives, trading ceased, and starvation prevailed.d.Under the leadership of John Smith, the colony survived five years, and through John Rolfe’s efforts, the colony developed a variety of tobacco that would become a profitable crop.2.Jamestown: Transition to a Royal Colony a.King James I took direct control of the colony after its near collapse and bankruptcy. 3.Plymouth and Massachusetts Baya.Religious motivation was the principal force behind the settlement of Plymouth and MassachusettsBay - settled by English Protestants who were dissenters from the Anglican Church, they were seen as a threat to King James’ authority, and were arrested and jailed.4.The Plymouth Colonya.Radical separatists, known as Pilgrims, who originally migrated to Holland, soon came to the NewWorld aboard the Mayflower- they established a new colony at Plymouth.5.The Plymouth Colony: Early Hardshipsa.Settlers at Plymouth adapted with the help of Native Americans, and so did its industry.6.Massachusetts Bay Colonya.Puritans believed that the Anglican Church could be reformed - in 1625, Charles I took the throne, and began the persecution of Puritans. b.Seeking religious freedom, Puritans gained a royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629. In 1630, civil war in England and the Great Migration impelled 15,000 settlers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. B.) Early Political Institutions1.Representative Assembly in Virginiaa.Colonists were guaranteed the same rights as residents in England - the House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in America.