Chapter 18.docx - 1 Chapter 18 notes Chapter 18 Organic Chemistry Organic Compounds are those that contain primarily carbon These compounds are present

Chapter 18.docx - 1 Chapter 18 notes Chapter 18 Organic...

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1 Chapter 18 notes Chapter 18 Organic Chemistry Organic Compounds – are those that contain primarily carbon. These compounds are present in (or produced by) living organisms. Organic Chemistry – is the study of organic compounds. Hydrocarbons These are compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen only. Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons where every carbon atom has bonded to four other atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons where at least one carbon atom has either a double bond or a triple bond. Types of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons – are hydrocarbons that have no benzene rings. Alkanes – contain only single bonds. C n H 2n+2 . All alkanes have names ending in –ane Cycloalkanes – have only single bonds and form rings. C n H 2n . Alkenes – contain at least one double bond. C n H 2n . All alkene have names that end in – ene. The –diene ending indicates 2 double bonds. Alkynes – contain at least one triple bond. C n H 2n-2 . All alkynes have names that end in – yne. Aromatic Hydrocarbons – are hydrocarbons that contain at least one benzene ring. On page 659 of your text book there is a flow chart for the classification of organic compounds. Structural formulas show the bond lines for all covalent bonds present in a molecule. A structural formula provides more information on the internal structure of a molecule than the molecular formula. To save space, chemists often use a short hand version of the structural formula. The condensed structural
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2 Chapter 18 notes formula shows the hydrogen atoms right next to the carbon atoms to which they bond. Often, the horizontal bond lines are omitted as well. Isomers – are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Naming Hydrocarbons 1)Name the longest chain of carbons. 2) Number the carbons in the chain. (Number them so that the substituent groups appear on the lowest number carbons possible.) 3) Give the name and location of the substituent groups (in alphabetical order) as a prefix to the name of the main chain. Prefixes are used to indicate the number of carbons atoms in the organic molecule.
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