Chapter 16.docx - 1 Chapter 16 notes Chapter 16 Oxidation and Reduction Gasoline coal and sugars are examples of reduced forms of matter they are high

Chapter 16.docx - 1 Chapter 16 notes Chapter 16 Oxidation...

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1 Chapter 16 notes Chapter 16 Oxidation and Reduction Gasoline, coal, and sugars are examples of reduced forms of matter; they are high in energy. Oxidized forms of matter are low in energy (exp. CO 2 and H 2 O). Oxidizing a material releases energy. For example, humans consume food. The food is oxidized in our digestive track and the energy used to live. Gasoline is oxidized in an engine. Plants reverse the process, using energy from the sun to produce food by the reduction of carbon dioxide. Oxidation State The oxidation state is a number assigned to each kind of atom in a compound or ion, or to an element, using an arbitrary but consistent set of rules. The oxidation number represents the number of electrons that have been gained, lost, or shared by the species. Rules for Assigning Oxidation States 1) The oxidation state of an atom in a free element is 0. 2) The oxidation state of a monoatomic ion is equal to its charge. 3) The sum of the oxidation states of all atoms in: A neutral molecule or formula is 0. An ion is equal to the charge of the ion. 4) In their compounds’ Group I metals have an oxidation state of +1 Group II metals have an oxidation state of +2. 5) In their compounds, nonmetals are assigned oxidation states according to the following hierarchal table. Entries at the top have priority over entries at the bottom. Nonmetal Oxidation State Fluorine -1 Hydrogen +1 Oxygen -2 Group7A -1 Group 6A -2 Group 5A -3 Oxidation Oxidation occurs each time a substance combines with oxygen. The substances that combine with oxygen are said to be oxidized . Originally the term oxidation was restricted to reactions involving combination with oxygen, but chemists learned that combination with chlorine (or bromine or other reactive nonmetals) was not all that different from reaction with oxygen. Oxidation and reduction are now defined in relationship to oxidation number.
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