Chapter 14.docx - 1 Chapter 14 notes Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Acids are generally recognized as substances that in aqueous solution would 1 2 3 4

Chapter 14.docx - 1 Chapter 14 notes Chapter 14 Acids and...

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1 Chapter 14 notes Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Acids are generally recognized as substances that, in aqueous solution, would: 1) Taste sour when diluted enough to be tasted. 2) Cause litmus to change from blue to red. 3) React with metals such as magnesium, zinc and iron to produce hydrogen gas. 4) React with bases to form water and salts. Salts are formed from the cation of a base and the anion of an acid. The reaction of an acid with a base is called a neutralization. Bases (aka alkalies) are generally recognized as substances that, in aqueous solution, would: 1) Taste bitter. 2) Feel slippery or soapy on the skin. 3) React with acids to form water and salts. Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acids release hydronium ion (H + or H 3 O + ) in water Bases release hydroxide ion (OH - ) in water Acidic solutions do not contain simple H + ions. Instead, the acidity is due to the presence of H 3 O + ions ( hydronium ions ) containing H + ions. These are formed when a H + ion rides piggy back on a water molecule. Acids that give up a single hydrogen per formula unit are called monoprotic acids . Those that give up two hydrogens are diprotic acids . Those that give up three are triprotic acids . Just because an acid has hydrogens does not mean those hydrogens will be given up to solution. Lactic acid (CH 3 CHOHCOOH) has six hydrogens, but is a monoprotic acid. Strong Acids and Weak Acids Acids which ionize completely (lose all of their hydrogens) or almost completely are called strong acids. HCl hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HNO 3 nitric acid HI hydroiodic acid HClO 4 perchloric acid Weak acids are those that ionize only slightly in dilute solution. Some important acids are shown in the table at the bottom of page 501. You should try to memorize the ones in red.
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2 Chapter 14 notes Strong Base and Weak Base Again, if the base ionizes completely (or nearly completely) in water it is a strong base. If the base does not ionize completely it is a weak base.
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  • Fall '17
  • Bases, pH, amphoteric hydroxides, Amphoteric Metals

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