Anatomy & physiology 2 Review for the final lecture exam Endocrine system 1. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? Give an example of each. Endocrine -secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells rather than into the ducts Ex : pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands. Exocrine - secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities. Ex : Sudoriferous (sweat), sebaceous (oil), mucous and digestive glands. 2. Explain positive and negative feedback regulation and give an example of hormone(s) that use one of these methods. Positive and negative regulations maintain homeostasis. negative feedback - Biological action of hormone or one of its products prevents over- secretion of the hormone. Examples: regulation of PTH by calcium; thyroxine and TSH; testosterone and LH. Positive feedback - works during labor to release oxytocin during the uterine stretch which cause contractions. Also, causes ejection of milk by activating contractile cells in breast. 3. What is the difference between hormones and neurotransmitters? Give examples of each. Hormones is longer lasting, but slower Neurotransmitters is faster bur shorter lasting 4. Explain the role of receptor up-regulation and down-regulation. When hormone is deficient, target cells will become more sensitive When hormone is excess, target cells may decrease 5. Explain how the pituitary gland is controlled (anterior and posterior). Pituitary gland secretes hormones that are proteins. The difference between posterior and anterior pituitary is that the hypothalamic hormones are carriers through the pituitary portal system to the anterior and the posterior hormones are made in the hypothalamus and are transported through axons and secreted in the pituitary . 6. Which hormones are released from anterior and which from posterior pituitary? Posterior- ADH, Oxytocin Anterior- hGH, Prolactin, ACTH, TSH, LH FSH, MSH 7. Explain where the following hormones are made and their actions: oxytocin, ADH, LH, FSH, PTH, calcitonin, epinephrine, insulin, thyroxin, melatonin. Oxytocin - posterior pituitary, stimulates smooth muscle cells of uterus during childbirth ADH - posterior pituitary, conserves body water by decreasing urine volume, raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles. LH -anterior pituitary- females: stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone, ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. Males: stimulates testes to produce testosterone.
FSH - anterior pituitary, Females: initiates development of oocytes, ovarian secretion of estrogens. Males: stimulates testes to produce sperm. PTH -chief cells make it in the parathyroid gland, secreted from the oxyphil cells when cancer is present in the parathyroid glands.
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