anthro midterm review.docx - Two Common Western...

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Two Common Western MisconceptionsThe Orient Express: civilization travelled from Mesopotamia westward, entered Dark Ages, & revived in EurooThus, only ME & Euro contributed to civilizationoNamed after railroad from 1800s that connected London, England to Istanbul, TurkeyThe European Miracle: Euro was able to advance & pull the rest of the world out of the Dark/Middle AgesoSomething “unique” happened in Euro, making them superioroEX) “democracy was invented in Athens” but was also present in IndiaAncient CivilizationsMesopotamia/Babylon, Persia, Greece, & Rome were not the only ancient civilizationsoEgyptoNubiaoSwahili CoastoGreat ZimbabweoMali/GhanaoYellow RiveroIndus RiverDomestication of Plants & Animals – when & where?Wheat: Middle E—10,000 BCYams: Africa—10,000 BCRice: Asia—10,000 BCMaize/Corn: Americas—10,000 BCBananas: New Guinea—8,000 BCCows: Africa, Middle E, India—8,000 BCChickens: SE Asia/E India—6,000 BCEarly “Cradles of Civilization”Mesopotamia (Iran/Iraq)Nile River Valley (Egypt)Indus River Valley (Pakistan/India)Yellow River Valley (China)Meso-America (Mexico/Guatemala)Early Indus Valley Civilization aka Harrapan CultureMohenjo-DarooLocated in PakistanoHad 40,000 peopleoCities were made of baked bricksoOver 700 water wellsoHad a flush-toilet system
oHad a great communal bathoMerchants used sealsoHas a statue named “The Priest King”; showed statusDholoviraoLocated in India along Sarasvati/Ghaggar HakvaroHad 20,000 peopleo15 meter stone wallsoHad 16 reservoirsHarappaoAble to become civilization bc of jewelry & wateroBuilt along Indus RiveroJewelry made of carnelianoNo warfareoSuspected to be a republic/democracyoOver 300 characters in writing systemOver 1000 ancient Indus Valley cities have been identified, but less than 10% have been excavatedMehrgarh is thought to be one of the oldest cities in the Indus region, dating 10,000 years agoThese ancient cities had running water, reservoirs, public baths, & a writing systemMany cities had ships & traded goods w/ Mesopotamian citiesCities were abandoned when the Ghaggar-Hakra River (aka Sarasvati River) dried up a few thousand years agoContemporaries in 5thcentury BCXerxes: Persian king; Zoroastrianism (monotheistic)Leonidas: Spartan king, Xerxes’ rivalSocrates: AthensConfucius: ChinaBuddha: aka Siddartha Guatama; IndiaRepublics & Limited Monarchiesin 5thcentury BC – where?Athens, “birthplace” of democracyAlso present in greater force in Indiao12 Republics at the same timeoLimited monarchy (not absolute monarchs, their power was constrained by legal court sys.)History vs. HistoriographyWhat actually happens in an event vs. to how it is recorded via perspective/biasCyrus Cylinder: promised religious tolerance in ancient Persian Empire (6thcentury BC)Mahavira: taught Jainism; India
oEX) Egypt & Hittites @ war: Pharoah Ramses II of Egypt was depicted in memorials of

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Term
Spring
Professor
douglas

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