The majority of the world’s societies are heterogeneous.docx

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Conflict Reconcili ation in Divided Societies : The Case of Lebanon
Abstract Most of the world’s societies are characterized by being heterogeneous in terms of incorporating different identities. These identities, being sectarian, ethnic, cultural, racial or other, have often led to a sharp and conflicting division within these societies. As a result, different conflict resolution methods were adopted to address the outbreak of violent and non- violent conflicts in these divided societies. The methods range from mediation all the way to coercive interventions. All of these methods aim at ending the conflict among the conflicting groups and establishing peace. These methods were implied in different conflicts that have inflated the Lebanese society, especially during the 1975 civil war. However, the central question remains about their effectiveness. This essay seeks to introduce the different methods of conflict resolution and asses their effectiveness in achieving peace and stability in post-war Lebanon. The main argument is that these measures have only contributed to a pause rather than an end to the conflict within Lebanon. However, this is not to say that all measures of conflict resolutions are completely inefficient and should be abandoned. On the contrary, these measures are highly important, yet they should be developed to address the specific causes that gave rise to the conflict within a certain society. 1
Table of Content Abstract 1 Table of Content 2 Introduction 3 Methods of Conflict Resolution 4 Conflict Resolution in Lebanon 5 Conclusion 7 Bibliography 9 2
Introduction The majority of the world’s societies are heterogeneous. Many of these societies are divided across religious, ethnic, racial, cultural or other lines. In such societies, identity plays a vital role in promoting a sense of social belonging. These sharp divisions make these societies more prone to conflict and manipulation by external forces. “Conflict could be violent on uncontrollable dominant or recessive, resolvable or insolvable under various sets or circumstances”[Aja14]. Different measures have been adopted towards conflict management and resolution, each depending on the configuration of the conflict. However, all these models aim at fulfilling one objective; ending the conflict and establishing peace. Following the Cold War, the number of interstate conflicts increased remarkably with the deepening of divisions in heterogeneous societies. Scholars have attributed different reasons when analyzing the origin of communal conflicts. These include the marginalization of minorities, the unequal distribution of resources or the “failure to meet the prevailing expectations of modernization and nation building to fulfill the visions of a large political community”[HoW05]. Regardless of their origins, conflicts arise when groups with different ends interact. In Lebanon, negotiations, agreements and a reinforcing of the consociational power sharing have been adopted to end the prolonged civil war of 1975. How effective were

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