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Lec 5 lubna AL Malah Traumatic injuries to the teeth“DENTAL TRAUMA”. The oral and emotional health of the young patient is involved, and the child's appearance, marred by an unsightly oral injury, must be restored to normal as soon as possible to relieve the consciousness of being different from other children. Injuries to the teeth of children or adults present unique problems in diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis of the extent of the injury after a blow to a tooth, regardless of loss of tooth structure, is difficult and often inconclusive. Trauma to a tooth is invariably followed by pulpal hyperemia, the extent of which cannot always be determined by available diagnostic methods.
Lec 5 lubna AL Malah Congestion and alteration in the blood flow in the pulp may be which over time can cause pulpal necrosis. In addition, the apical vessels may have been severed or damaged enough to interfere with the normal reparative process. Treatment of injuries causing pulp exposure or tooth displacement is particularly challenging, because the prognosis of the involved tooth is often uncertain. The treatment of fractured teeth, particularly in young patients, is further complicated by the often difficult but extremely important restorative procedure. Although the dentist may prefer to delay the restoration because of a questionable prognosis for the pulp, often a malocclusion can develop within a matter of days as a result of a break in the normal proximal contact with adjacent teeth. Adjacent teeth may tip into the area created by the loss of tooth structure. This loss of space will create a problem when the final restoration is contemplated. There must often be a compromise of an ideal esthetic appearance, at least in the initial restoration, because the prognosis is questionable or because the tooth is young and has a large pulp or is still in the stage of active eruption. Often the likelihood of success depends on the rapidity with which the tooth is treated after the injury, regardless of whether the procedure involves protecting a large area of exposed dentin or treating a vital pulp exposure. Several factors can be considered common to all types of injury to the anterior teeth. These important considerations should become a checklist invariably used by the dentist in the diagnosis of and treatment planning for traumatic injuries.
Lec 5 lubna AL Malah Prevalence ofdental trauma: The prevalence of dental injuiy varies according to different Nationalities. It is more in primary dentition than it is in the permanent dentition. Agedistribution: Peak incidence for primary dentition is 2-4 years (This is the age when a child learns to toddle and is relatively uncoordinated). For permanent dentition and according to many Iraqi studies, the highest occurrence of dental injury was found in the age interval of 9-1 Jyears of age (This could be attributed to the fact that children are usually more active in this period of life andthey cannot precisely evaluate velocity and danger) gender: