Red Indians, Black Slavery and White Racism: America's Slaveholding Indians Author(s): William G. McLoughlin Source: American Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Oct., 1974), pp. 367-385 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL: Accessed: 01-11-2018 01:26 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at The Johns Hopkins University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to American Quarterly This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Thu, 01 Nov 2018 01:26:04 UTC All use subject to
RED INDIANS, BLACK SLAVERY AND WHITE RACISM: AMERICA'S SLAVEHOLDING INDIANS WILLIAM G. McLOUGHLIN Brown University MANY QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN RAISED ABOUT BLACK-INDIAN RELATIONS, IN North America.' None of them has been really answered yet-or rather, we have contradictory answers so far. Some historians have argued that until whites interfered the Indians were generally friendly toward blacks; others have argued that the Indians always considered black people as the allies of the whites and hence feared and disliked them; still others have said that the Indians learned to look upon black people the same way white people did and hence considered them to be little more than another form of property, like horses and cattle. Some historians have said that various In- dian tribes in North America were generally friendly toward runaway black slaves and provided a refuge for them. Others say that the Indians usually joined the white slavehunters in tracking down runaways and returned them to their masters for the rewards offered. Some historians say that Indians never killed, tortured or scalped slaves in warfare; others say there is evi- dence they did all three. These contradictory answers to black-Indian relations (especially during 'The most extensive writing on this subject has been by Kenneth W. Porter in a long series of articles starting in 1932 in the Journal of Negro History. Many of these have recently been an- thologized as The Negro on the American Frontier (New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971). The only book devoted to this subject is Laurence Foster, Negro-Indian Rela- tionships in the Southeast (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1935). Foster was con- cerned primarily with the peculiar case of the Seminole Indians. The standard histories of the other Southeastern Indian nations (Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw) offer some scattered details and unsupported generalizations but no extensive treatment. Gary B. Nash has a short summary of "African-Indian Contact" in the colonial period in Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974), pp. 290-
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 20 pages?