EXPERIMENT 4Acids and BasesMaterials and Equipment: Red Cabbage, Hot or Boiling Water, Pitcher, pH paper, Lemon Soda (sprite, sierra mist), White Vinegar, Apple Juice, Baking Soda, Shampoo (preferably clear), Conditioner (preferably clear), Hand Sanitizer (clear), Ammonia.IntroductionIn this experiment we will determine the pH of a variety of substances using both pH paper anda natural indicator- red cabbage juice. Red cabbage contains a pigment called flavin. Flavin isalso found in red poppies, grapes, blue cornflowers, and apple skin. The pigment changes color with pH so it can be used as an indicator. Many of the liquids in your house have acidic or basic properties. Acids taste sour; bases taste bitter and feel slippery. We use acids and bases everyday without much concern, however, strong acids and bases can be very dangerous. It is important to know what chemicals in our house are dangerous and to take the proper precautions when working with them. The pH scale is a reflection of the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) present in a substance. Recall that when an acid dissolves in water, it will dissociate into its conjugate base and hydronium ions.HA + H2O A-+ H3O+For a strong acid, this reaction is irreversible. When a weak acid dissolves in water, the reaction in reversible and will go both ways. The pH of a substance is calculated using the following equation:pH = -log [H3O+] (Equation 1)The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14. 1 is considered the most acidic and 14 is the most basic. A pH of 7 is neutral.