Chem Ch.4 Bonding - Study Guide.docx - Topic 4 Chemical...

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Chapter 19 / Exercise 53
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Topic 4: Chemical Bonding – Study GuideSophia VeselyI.Bonding Overview:a.Three Types:i.Ionic (always solid at room temperature)ii.Covalent iii.Metallic (lustrous)b.All involve electrostatic attractions (+ and -)i.In ionic bonds, electrostatic attraction is between oppositely charged ions (cations and anions).ii.In covalent bonds, electrostatic attraction is between the two positively charged nuclei and their shared pair of electrons.iii.In metallic bonding, electrostatic attraction is between the lattice of cations and delocalized electrons, which move randomly throughout the lattice.c.Electronegativity is used to predict the bonding.i.Relative measure of the ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract electrons to itself.1.Fluorine has the highest electronegativity (4.0).2.As you go diagonally up the periodic table towards Fluorine, the electronegativity of each element increases.3.Just helps to distinguish which bonding likely occurred, not the likelihood of bonding.Nature of the BondElectronegativity RelationshipKinds of Elements InvolvedIonicLarge difference (>1.8)Metal (left) and nonmetal (rigCovalentAtoms involved have high electronegativity (<1.8)Nonmetals/metalloids only (which have traits of nonmetaand metals)MetallicAtoms involved have low electronegativityMetals onlyd.Physical properties are dependent on the type of bonding between atoms or ions.e.Differences in electronegativity can be determined by the periodic table with the electronegativity on page 8 of the data booklet.II.Ionic Bonding can exist as a single compound??a.Formation of ions (ionization – transfer of electrons between atoms)i.Electron transfer (transfer from metal {+} to nonmetal {-})1.Metals in Groups 1, 2, and 3 become cations. Lose electrons.2.Nonmetals in Groups 15, 16, and 17 gain electrons to become anions.
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3.Elements in Group 14 typically do not form ions. Too much energyinvolved in transferring four electrons. Typically, covalent bonds for this group.ii.Octet rule: atoms tend to gain or lose electrons (or share) until they are surrounded by 8 valence electrons – in order to attain the Noble gas electron configuration stability.1.Full outer shell like the noble gases is like an “ultimate goal” for other atoms. Atoms react to gain this stability.2.Except hydrogen only needs one valence electron and helium only needs two.iii.Elements in groups 1, 2, and 3 and 15, 16, and 17 tend to gain or lose electrons to form ions with electron configurations isoelectric to a noble gas.1.Isoelectric = same electronic structure.a.F will gain one electron making it -1 to have the same number of valence electrons (8) as Ne, which has 10 total electrons rather than 9. 8 of these are on the outer rim.b.Na has one valence electron; loses electron to become full like the previous noble gas on the periodic table.c.Column number (groups) on periodic table indicated how many valence electrons an element has. Ex. F is in Group 17, so 7 valence electrons. This does not apply to the transition metals in the middle. They are random in terms

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