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PSY 111 Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Exam 1 Review Chapter 1...

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Exam 1 ReviewChapter 1Be familiar with the following psychologists, their contributions to the field, and theirrespective school of thought (where applicable):Wilhelm WundtoWilhelm Wundt (1832-1920):Opened the first psychological laboratory inGermany in1979He believed that scientific psychology should focus on analyzingconsciousnessConsciousness- a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mindWilliam JamesoFirst to take scientific approach to study psychologyoFunctionalism-Study of the purpose mental process serves in enabling people toadapt to their environment.Sigmund FreudoPsychoanalytic theory-An approach to human behavior that emphasis theimportance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, andbehaviors.Unconscious-Part of the mind that operates outside of awareness butinfluences conscious lifePsychoanalysis-Therapeutic approach that focuses on bringingunconscious material into conscious awareness to better understandpsychological disorders.Ivan PavlovoStudied the physiology of digestion and founded classic conditioningClassic Conditioning-Pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-evokingstimulus to create a response to the neutral stimulusJohn B. WatsonoInfluenced by Pavlov; goals were to predict and control behavior through thestudy of observable behaviorB.F. SkinneroDeveloped the “Skinner box”, or conditioning chamberoFounded operation conditioningoReinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases itAbraham MaslowoPioneered a new movement in Humanistic PsychologyCarl RogersoPioneered a new movement in Humanistic PsychologyDistinguish between the phenomena that led to the rise of cognitive psychology andbehaviorism?Cognitive Psychology:Gestalt Psychology; Paving the way for cognitive psychologyoDiscrepancies between the objective reality and our perceptions led todevelopment of Gestalt psychology
Exam 1 ReviewoGestalt psychologistsemphasized that we often perceive the whole rather than thesum of the partsIllusions:Errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjectiveexperience differs from objective realityComputers and the Rise of Cognitive PsychologyoEmergence of computers led to reemergence of interest in mental processesoCognitive psychology impacted various subfields of psychology includingdevelopmental and educational psychologyBehaviorism:Freud Develops Psychoanalytic Theory:oSigmund Freud (1856-1939):oPsychoanalytic theory-An approach to human behavior that emphasisthe importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings,thoughts, and behaviors.oUnconscious-Part of the mind that operates outside of awareness butinfluences conscious lifeoPsychoanalysis-Therapeutic approach that focuses on bringingunconscious material into conscious awareness to better understandpsychological disorders.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Cooper

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