Process Design.ppt - Operations Management Chapter 7...

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Unformatted text preview: Operations Management Chapter 7 – Process Strategy Dell Computer Mass customization provides a Company competitive advantage Sell custom-built PCs directly to consumer Lean production processes and good product design allow responsiveness Integrate the Web into every aspect of its business Focus research on software designed to make installation and configuration of its PCs fast and simple Process, Volume, and Variety Volume Figure 7.1 Low Volume High Variety one or few units per run, high variety (allows customization) Changes in Modules modest runs, standardized modules Changes in Attributes (such as grade, quality, size, thickness, etc.) long runs only Repetitive Process Process Focus projects, job shops (machine, print, carpentry) Standard Register High Volume Mass Customization (difficult to achieve, but huge rewards) Dell Computer Repetitive (autos, motorcycles) Harley-Davidson Poor Strategy (Both fixed and variable costs are high) Product Focus (commercial baked goods, steel, glass) Nucor Steel Process Strategies How to produce a product or provide a service that Meets or exceeds customer requirements Meets cost and managerial goals Has long term effects on Efficiency and production flexibility Costs and quality Process Strategies Four basic strategies Process focus Repetitive focus Product focus Mass customization Within these basic strategies there are many ways they may be implemented Process Focus Facilities are organized around specific activities or processes General purpose equipment and skilled personnel High degree of product flexibility Typically high costs and low equipment utilization Product flows may vary considerably making planning and scheduling a challenge Process Focus Job Shop Many inputs Many variety of outputs Repetitive Focus Facilities often organized as assembly lines Characterized by modules with parts and assemblies made previously Modules may be combined for many output options Less flexibility than processfocused facilities but more efficient Repetitive Focus Automobile Assembly Line Modules combined for many output options Raw materials and module inputs Few modules Product Focus Facilities are organized by product High volume but low variety of products Long, continuous production runs enable efficient processes Typically high fixed cost but low variable cost Generally less skilled labor Product Focus Continuous Work Flow Few inputs Output variations in size, shape, and packaging Mass Customization The rapid, low-cost production of goods and service to satisfy increasingly unique customer desires Combines the flexibility of a process focus with the efficiency of a product focus Mass Number of Choices Customization Item 1970s 21 Century Table 7.1 st Vehicle models Vehicle types Bicycle types Software titles Web sites Movie releases New book titles Houston TV channels Breakfast cereals Items (SKUs) in supermarkets LCD TVs 140 18 8 0 0 267 40,530 5 160 14,000 286 1,212 19 400,000 98,116,993 458 77,446 185 340 150,000 0 102 Mass Customization Repetitive Focus Figure 7.5 Flexible people and equipment Supportive supply chains Modular techniques Mass Customization Effective scheduling techniques Process-Focused High variety, low volume Low utilization (5% to 25%) General-purpose equipment Rapid throughput techniques Product-Focused Low variety, high volume High utilization (70% to 90%) Specialized equipment Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Small quantity, large variety of products Long runs, standardized product made from modules Large quantity, small variety of products Large quantity, large variety of products General purpose equipment Special equipment aids in use of assembly line Special purpose equipment Rapid changeover on flexible equipment Table 7.2 Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Operators are broadly skilled Employees are modestly trained Operators are less broadly skilled Flexible operators are trained for the necessary customization Many job instructions as each job changes Repetition reduces training and changes in job instructions Few work orders and job instructions because jobs standardized Custom orders require many job instructions Table 7.2 Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Raw material inventories high JIT procurement techniques used Raw material inventories are low Raw material inventories are low Work-inprocess is high JIT inventory techniques used Work-inprocess inventory is low Work-inprocess inventory driven down by JIT, lean production Table 7.2 Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Units move slowly through the plant Movement is measured in hours and days Swift movement of unit through the facility is typical Goods move swiftly through the facility Finished goods made to order Finished goods made to frequent forecast Finished goods made to forecast and stored Finished goods often build-to-order (BTO) Table 7.2 Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Scheduling is complex, trade-offs between inventory, availability, customer service Scheduling based on building various models from a variety of modules to forecasts Relatively simple scheduling, establishing output rate to meet forecasts Sophisticated scheduling required to accommodate custom orders Table 7.2 Comparison of Processes Process Focus (Low volume, high variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product Focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety) Fixed costs low, variable costs high Fixed costs dependent on flexibility of the facility Fixed costs high, variable costs low Fixed costs high, variable costs must be low Costing estimated before job, known only after the job Costs usually known due to extensive experience High fixed costs mean costs dependent on utilization of capacity High fixed costs and dynamic variable costs make costing a challenge Table 7.2 Focused Processes Focus brings efficiency Focus on depth of product line rather than breadth Focus can be Customers Products Service Technology Changing Processes Difficult and expensive May mean starting over Process strategy determines transformation strategy for an extended period Important to get it right Process Analysis and Design Flow Diagrams - Shows the movement of materials Time-Function Mapping - Shows flows and time frame Value-Stream Mapping - Shows flows and time and value added beyond the immediate organization Process Charts - Uses symbols to show key activities Service Blueprinting - focuses on customer/provider interaction Service Blueprint Focuses on the customer and provider interaction Defines three levels of interaction Each level has different management issues Identifies potential failure points Process Analysis Tools Flowcharts provide a view of the big picture Time-function mapping adds rigor and a time element Value-stream analysis extends to customers and suppliers Process charts show detail Service blueprint focuses on customer interaction Service Process Matrix Mass Service and Professional Service Labor involvement is high Selection and training highly important Focus on human resources Personalized services Service Factory and Service Shop Automation of standardized services Low labor intensity responds well to process technology and scheduling Tight control required to maintain standards Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Separation Structure service so customers must go where service is offered Bank customers go to a manager to open a new account, to loan officers for loans, and to tellers for deposits Self-service Self-service so customers examine, compare, and evaluate at their own pace Supermarkets and department stores, Internet ordering Table 7.3 Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Postponement Customizing at delivery Customizing vans at delivery rather than at production Focus Restricting the offerings Limited-menu restaurant Modules Modular selection of service, modular production Investment and insurance selection, prepackaged food modules in restaurants Table 7.3 Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Automation Separating services that may lend themselves to automation Automatic teller machines Scheduling Precise personnel scheduling Scheduling ticket counter personnel at 15-minute intervals at airlines Training Clarifying the service options, explaining how to avoid problems Investment counselor, funeral directors, aftersale maintenance personnel Table 7.3 Improving Service Processes Layout Product exposure, customer education, product enhancement Human Resources Recruiting and training Impact of flexibility Equipment and Technology Often complex decisions Possible competitive advantage Flexibility Stable processes May allow enlarging the scope of the processes Production Technology Machine technology Automatic identification systems (AISs) Process control Vision system Robot Automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRSs) Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) Flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Machine Technology Increased precision Increased productivity Increased flexibility Improved environmental impact Reduced changeover time Decreased size Reduced power requirements Automatic Identification Systems (AISs) Improved data acquisition Reduced data entry errors Increased speed Increased scope of process automation Example – Bar codes and RFID Process Control Increased process stability Increased process precision Real-time provision of information for process evaluation Data available in many forms Vision Systems Particular aid to inspection Consistently accurate Never bored Modest cost Superior to individuals performing the same tasks Robots Perform monotonous or dangerous tasks Perform tasks requiring significant strength or endurance Generally enhanced consistency and accuracy Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRSs) Automated placement and withdrawal of parts and products Reduced errors and labor Particularly useful in inventory and test areas of manufacturing firms Automated Guided Vehicle (AGVs) Electronically guided and controlled carts Used for movement of products and/or individuals Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) Computer controls both the workstation and the material handling equipment Enhance flexibility and reduced waste Can economically produce low volume at high quality Reduced changeover time and increased utilization Stringent communication requirement between components Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Extension of flexible manufacturing systems Backwards to engineering and inventory control Forward into warehousing and shipping Can also include financial and customer service areas Reducing the distinction between lowvolume/high-variety, and highvolume/low-variety production Technology in Services Service Industry Example Financial Services Debit cards, electronic funds transfer, ATMs, Internet stock trading Education Electronic bulletin boards, on-line journals, WebCT and Blackboard Utilities and government Automated one-man garbage trucks, optical mail and bomb scanners, flood warning systems Restaurants and foods Wireless orders from waiters to kitchen, robot butchering, transponders on cars that track sales at drive-throughs Communications Electronic publishing, interactive TV Table 7.4 Technology in Services Service Industry Example Hotels Electronic check-in/check-out, electronic key/lock system Wholesale/retail trade ATM-like kiosks, point-of-sale (POS) terminals, e-commerce, electronic communication between store and supplier, bar coded data Transportation Automatic toll booths, satellite-directed navigation systems Health care Online patient-monitoring, online medical information systems, robotic surgery Airlines Ticketless travel, scheduling, Internet purchases Table 7.4 Process Redesign The fundamental rethinking of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance Relies on reevaluating the purpose of the process and questioning both the purpose and the underlying assumptions Requires reexamination of the basic process and its objectives Focuses on activities that cross functional lines Any process is a candidate for redesign Ethics and Environmentally Friendly Processes Reduce the negative impact on the environment Encourage recycling Efficient use of resources Reduction of waste by-products Use less harmful ingredients Use less energy ...
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  • Summer '18
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