Chapter 26_ America in a World at War.docx - War on Two...

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War on Two Fronts Containing the Japanese -After the strike at Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked American airfields in Manilla, destorying AMerica’s remaining air power, and American Guam fell to Japan, as well as British Hong Kong, Signapore and Dutch East Indies -American strategists planned two broad offesnives to turn the tide against the Japanese, one under command of Genreal MacArthur, who would move north from Australia, through New Guinea and back to the Philippines; the other, under Admiral Nimitz would move from Hawaii toward major Japanese island outposts -The Allies achieved their first important victory int he battle of Coral Sea, when Ameircan forces turned back the Junstobable Japanese; an even more important turning point occured in Hawaii, near a small AMeircan outpost at Midway Island, which America regained control of the central Pacific -The AMericas took the offesnive in the Solomon Islands, attacking Gavattu, Tulagi, and Guadacanal, with the last battle continuing for half a year; Japan had to abandon the island, ruinign the last chance at an offesnvie to the South Holding off the Germans -In the EUorpean war, the US had less control over military operations, fighitng in cooperation with Britain and with the exiled Free French forces, as well as tring to conciliate its new ally, the Soveits, fighting Hitler in the East; American General Marshall supporred a plan for a major Allied invasion of France, but it faced challenges from the Allies as the SOviet Union was absorbing the brunt of Gemran effort, so they wanted Allied invasion to proceed earlier, while the British wanted to launch a series of offesnvies around the edges of the Nazi Empire before invading France -Roosevelt realized support of the British would antagonize the Soviets but he also knew that invasion of EUrope would take a while to prepare, and he was reluctant to wait so long before getting American forces into combat, so he diecded to support the Birtish plan; the British attacked Nazi North Africa under Rommel, who was threateing the SUz Canal and forced the Gemrans to retreat from Europe; Anglo Ameircan froces aldned at Oran and Algiers in Algeria, movign toward Rommel -The German thre wthe full weight of their forces in Africa against the inexperienced Ameircans and inflicted a serious defeat in Tunisia; General Patton regrouped American troups and began an effective counteroffensive; the North Africa campaign tied up a large proportion of the allied resources and contribueted to the postponment of the planned invasion of France, produicng agnry complaints form the Soviet Union, but the threat of Soveit collapse seemed diminsehd as the Red Army had successfullly eld off a major German assault at Stalingrad, and Hitler had committed such enormous forces to the battle, and suffered such appalling losses, that he could not continue his eastern offesnive -The Gemran siege of Stalingrad decimated the civilian population of hte cit and devestated the

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